Union Flexibility

Why It’s Now a Must

WITHIN THE NEXT TWO YEARS the long-range course will be set for America’s smokestack labor. Will smokestack incomes and jobs continue to shrink—and perhaps even faster in good times when industry can raise money for automation? Or can employment be stabilized and real incomes be maintained, at least for a goodly majority? The decision will be made by smokestack labor itself and by its unions.

Productivity in the American smokestack industries needs to be improved considerably. But poor productivity is not the real villain. To be sure Toyota has far fewer workers on its payroll per car than ...

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