7Ecopharmacokinetics and Ecopharmacodynamics of PPCPs

The development of a pharmaceutical compound prior to clinical use is a protracted process that involves a huge investment of time and money. A typical screening cascade during drug development includes the following sequence: primary screening (in vitro) → secondary functional screening (in vitro) → drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics (in vitro and in vivo) → pharmacodynamic model (in vivo) → disease model (in vivo) → development and marketing. In vitro systems are experimental systems that use biological materials other than intact animals. Such systems include primary cell cultures, tissue slices, and established cell lines. Noticeably absent from the screening cascade outlined above is an assessment of the effects of pharmaceutical compounds on other organisms besides the organisms for which the compounds in question are designed. The general public appreciates the fact that our individual actions and activities can contribute to the pollution of our ...

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