Optical Fiber Sensors and Their Applications for Explosive Detection
After 9/11, monitoring and protection of critical infrastructures such as airports, bridges, buildings, railways, utilities, and water reservoirs, as well as concentrations of people clustered inside or around them, became a priority of governments around the world. At the same time, awareness increased the need to enhance surveillance of borders, perimeters, and transportation systems. All these concerns led to significant government-sponsored industrial and academic research and development. One of the most intensive efforts to counterpotential terrorist threats has been directed to explosive detection. In this connection, a significant document issued by the US Transportation Security Administration and the US Congress gives priority attention to improving the ability of screening checkpoints to detect explosives and other hazardous materials on passengers, in their luggage, and in all other cargo transported by air .
Explosive detection for air transportation security purposes focuses on two major areas: cargo security  and passenger screening . There are several hundreds of explosive materials officially listed under the United States Code . We are concerned here with three types. The first type consists of nitrate organic compounds such ...