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Photoshop® CS4 Bible by Dan Moughamian, Simon Abrams, Stacy Cates

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18.3. Summary

This chapter demonstrated several methods of replacing, smoothing, and removing unwanted defects in an image, as well as methods of selectively brightening and darkening small regions of an exposure, without losing detail. Methods of accurately scaling an image without distorting or compressing important details were also shown with Content Aware Scaling, and flaws that come from lenses were diminished by using Lens Correction.

Among the most fundamental retouching tools are the Clone Stamp and the Clone Source panel, which allow you to effectively replace small bits and pieces of the image with surrounding texture. These tools can be especially useful in shots where you are trying to replace regions of the image with other, random details such as grass, sand, or tree leaves — things which have detail, but no particular order and allow for barren areas to be covered up in a realistic way. The Clone Stamp is also a useful tool for removing dust and spots caused by debris on your lens or digital camera sensor.

The Healing Brush and Spot Healing Brush are excellent tools for smoothing over facial imperfections or other areas where the texture from neighboring image regions must be used in a convincing way. Reducing wrinkles or removing spots and blemishes are the bread and butter for the healing brushes, and typically the results are fantastic if you watch what you're doing and take advantage of the Fade command to ensure that things don't get too perfectly smooth. ...

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