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Physical and Biological Hazards of the Workplace, 3rd Edition by Peter H. Wald, Gregg M. Stave

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Chapter 25ANAPLASMA, CHLAMYDOPHILA, COXIELLA, EHRLICHIA, and RICKETTSIA

Dennis J. Darcey*

Anaplasma, Coxiella, Ehrlichia, and Rickettsia spp. were previously considered as members of the same family but are now considered distinct entities based on genetic analysis. These groups of organisms are bacteria but only grow inside living cells.

ANAPLASMA

Common names for disease: Anaplasmosis, human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA), previously described as human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE)

Occupational setting

Ranchers, farmers, foresters, rangers, hunters, lumberjacks, landscapers, outdoor workers, veterinarians, and research and laboratory technicians are at increased risk of exposure.

Exposure (route)

Anaplasma is transmitted to humans by the bite of an infected tick. The blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis) is the vector of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in the northeast and upper midwestern United States, and the western blacklegged tick (Ixodes pacificus) is the primary vector in Northern California (Figure 25.1).1 Cases have also been confirmed in several European and Asian countries.

Map of the United States displaying discrete colors in the upper Midwest and coastal New England depicting the location of reported cases of Anaplasma phagocytophilum bite.

FIGURE 25.1 Map of the United States showing the number of Anaplasma phagocytophilum cases by county in 2012. Cases are reported primarily from the upper Midwest and coastal New England, reflecting both the range of the primary tick vector species, Ixodes scapularis—also known to transmit ...

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