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Physically Based Rendering, 3rd Edition by Greg Humphreys, Wenzel Jakob, Matt Pharr

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8.5 Fresnel incidence effects

Many BRDF models in graphics do not account for the fact that Fresnel reflection reduces the amount of light that reaches the bottom level of layered objects. Consider a polished wood table or a wall with glossy paint: if you look at their surfaces head-on, you primarily see the wood or the paint pigment color. As you move your viewpoint toward a glancing angle, you see less of the underlying color as it is overwhelmed by increasing glossy reflection due to Fresnel effects.

In this section, we will implement a BRDF model developed by Ashikhmin and Shirley (2000, 2002) that models a diffuse underlying surface with a glossy specular surface above it. The effect of reflection from the diffuse surface is modulated by ...

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