Appendix A

Design of Upper Limb Exoskeletons

A.1 Heavy duty exoskeleton robot

We use the PowerCube motors as the basic elements for the joints of the exoskeleton. All joint modules are integrated using the universal communication interfaces CAN. Each joint has its own computer control system. The joint modules are fitted with a standardized interface for mechanism and control. The 4-DoF upper limb exoskeleton is mounted on the ground. This allows both height and distance adjustment between the arms; see Fig. A.1. Articulation of the exoskeleton is four single axes: three for the shoulder and one for the elbow. We also develop an admittance control for this 4-DoF upper limb exoskeleton. It uses the force interactions between the device and ...

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