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Plant Hazard Analysis and Safety Instrumentation Systems

Book Description

Plant Hazard Analysis and Safety Instrumentation Systems is the first book to combine coverage of these two integral aspects of running a chemical processing plant. It helps engineers from various disciplines learn how various analysis techniques, international standards, and instrumentation and controls provide layers of protection for basic process control systems, and how, as a result, overall system reliability, availability, dependability, and maintainability can be increased.

This step-by-step guide takes readers through the development of safety instrumented systems, also including discussions on cost impact, basics of statistics, and reliability. Swapan Basu brings more than 35 years of industrial experience to this book, using practical examples to demonstrate concepts.

Basu links between the SIS requirements and process hazard analysis in order to complete SIS lifecycle implementation and covers safety analysis and realization in control systems, with up-to-date descriptions of modern concepts, such as SIL, SIS, and Fault Tolerance to name a few. In addition, the book addresses security issues that are particularly important for the programmable systems in modern plants, and discusses, at length, hazardous atmospheres and their impact on electrical enclosures and the use of IS circuits.

  • Helps the reader identify which hazard analysis method is the most appropriate (covers ALARP, HAZOP, FMEA, LOPA)
  • Provides tactics on how to implement standards, such as IEC 61508/61511 and ANSI/ISA 84
  • Presents information on how to conduct safety analysis and realization in control systems and safety instrumentation

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Table of Contents
  4. Copyright
  5. Dedication
  6. Foreword
  7. Preface
  8. Acknowledgments
  9. Chapter I. Basics of Hazard, Risk Ranking, and Safety Systems
    1. 1.0. Introduction
    2. 2.0. Hazard and Risk
    3. 3.0. Risk Register, Risk Matrix and Risk Ranking
    4. 4.0. Consequence, PHA and ALARP
    5. 5.0. Basics of Mathematics
    6. 6.0. Fault Tolerance and Plant Ageing
    7. 7.0. Safety Instrumentation
    8. 8.0. Functional Safety and Safety Integrity Level
    9. List of Abbreviations
  10. Chapter II. Evaluation of Hazard and Risk Analysis
    1. 1.0. Plant Hazard Analysis Preliminaries
    2. 2.0. Evaluation of Plant Hazard Selection Techniques
    3. 3.0. Hazard Identification (HAZID) and Risk Estimate
    4. 4.0. Risk Assessment and Management
    5. List of Abbreviations
  11. Chapter III. Qualitative Hazard Analysis
    1. 1.0. Preliminary Hazard Analysis
    2. 2.0. “What If” and “What If” Checklist Analysis
    3. 3.0. Checklist Analysis
    4. List of Abbreviations
  12. Chapter IV. Guided Word Hazard Analysis
    1. 1.0. HAZOP Study/Analysis
    2. 2.0. Failure Mode and Effect Analysis
    3. List of Abbreviations
  13. Chapter V. Quantitative Hazard Analysis
    1. 1.0. Introduction
    2. 2.0. Event Tree Analysis
    3. 3.0. Fault Tree Analysis
    4. 4.0. Layer of Protection Analysis
    5. 5.0. Quantitative Risk Analysis in Brief
    6. 6.0. Human Reliability Analysis in Brief
    7. List of Abbreviations
  14. Chapter VI. Discussions on Standards for Risk Assessment and Safety Instrumented Systems
    1. 1.0. Standard Requirements for Risk Assessment
    2. 2.0. Short Discussion on Standards for Process Hazards Analyses
    3. 3.0. Batch Controls and Associated Standards
    4. 4.0. Functional Safety Standards: IEC 61508
    5. 5.0. Functional Safety Process Standards: IEC 61511
    6. 6.0. Functional Safety Standard: ANSI/ISA-84.00.01
    7. List of Abbreviations
  15. Chapter VII. Safety Instrumentation Functions and System (Including Fire and Gas System)
    1. 1.0. Safety Instrumented Function, Safety Instrumented System, and Safety Integrity Level Discussions
    2. 2.0. Failure Modes, Effects, and Diagnostic Analysis and System Integration Issues
    3. 3.0. Fire and Gas System in Safety Instrumented Systems
    4. 4.0. Role of Alarm System in Safety Instrumented Systems
    5. List of Abbreviations
  16. Chapter VIII. SIL, PE, FGS, and Plant Emergencies
    1. 1.0. SIL Methods
    2. 2.0. SIL Policy and Programmable Systems
    3. 3.0. Fire and Gas
    4. 4.0. Plant Emergencies
    5. 4.4. Reliability Issues
    6. 4.5. Protection Issues
    7. 4.6. ESD Configuration and HMI
    8. List of Abbreviations
  17. Chapter IX. Safety Instrumented System Requirements for Fieldbus and Control Components
    1. 1.0. General
    2. 2.0. Safe Field Bus System
    3. 3.0. Field Sensors for Safety Instrumented Systems
    4. 4.0. Alarm Systems in Safety Instrumented Systems
    5. 5.0. Safety Instrumented System Logic Solver
    6. 6.0. Final Control Elements for Safety Instrumented Systems
    7. List of Abbreviations
  18. Chapter X. Instrumentation Safety Implementation and Explosion Protection
    1. Explanation
    2. Section 1: IEC 61508/61511 Implementation
    3. 1.0. Safety Requirement Specification
    4. 2.0. Certification and Proof Testing
    5. Section 2: Explosion Protection
    6. 3.0. Hazardous Area Classification and Electrical Safety
    7. List of Abbreviations
  19. Chapter XI. Fault Tolerance, Protection Layer, and System Security
    1. 1.0. Fault Tolerance
    2. 2.0. Protection Layers
    3. 3.0. BPCS and SIS Integration: Architectural Issues
    4. 4.0. Security Issues in SIS
    5. List of Abbreviations
  20. Chapter XII. Discussions on the Industrial Application of SIS
    1. 1.0. Recapitulation of SIS
    2. 2.0. Fossil Fuel Power Plants
    3. 3.0. Nuclear Plant Safety Discussions
    4. 4.0. Safety Instrumentation in Oil and Gas Facilities
    5. 5.0. Short Discussion on SIS Application in Other Industries
    6. 6.0. Final Discussions
    7. List of Abbreviations
  21. Appendix I. Popular Terms and Their Definitions
  22. Appendix II. Electrical Protection and Enclosure Class
    1. 1.0. General
    2. 2.0. Enclosure Types, Application Notes, and Standards
    3. 3.0. Lightning and Surge Protection of Intrinsic Safety Circuit
    4. 4.0. Surge Protection Details for Intrinsic Safety Circuits
    5. 5.0. Earthing for Intrinsic Safety Circuits
    6. List of Abbreviations
  23. Appendix III. Simplified Mathematical Equations
    1. 1.0. General
    2. 2.0. Simple Mathematics for Reliability
    3. List of Abbreviations
  24. Appendix IV. Little JIL Process Language
    1. 1.0. General
    2. 2.0. Little JIL Process Definition Language
    3. 3.0. Application of Little JIL in Hazard Analysis Automation
    4. List of Abbreviations
  25. Appendix V. Embedded Control
    1. 1.0. Microprocessor, Microcontroller, and Field Programmable Gate Array
    2. 2.0. Microcontroller Unit: What is Microcontroller?
    3. 3.0. Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA)
    4. 4.0. Conceptual Discussions on Hardware Description Language (HDL)
    5. List of Abbreviations
  26. Appendix VI. Cost Impact Discussion
    1. 1.0. General
    2. 2.0. Life Cycle Costing Process
    3. 3.0. Life Cycle Cost Analysis
    4. List of Abbreviations
  27. Index