Appendix A

Abbreviations

ABS: The American Bureau of Shipping is a U.S. classification society that certifies if a ship follows standard rules of construction and maintenance.

bbl/d: barrels per day; the second “b” in “bbl” can be explained when looking into history: “In the early 1860s, when oil production began, there was no standard container for oil, so oil and petroleum products were stored and transported in barrels of all different shapes and sizes (beer barrels, fish barrels, molasses barrels, turpentine barrels, etc.). By the early 1870s, the 42-gallon barrel had been adopted as the standard for oil trade. This was 2 gallons per barrel more than the 40-gallon standard used by many other industries at the time. The extra 2 gallons was ...

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