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Power Electronics and Control Techniques for Maximum Energy Harvesting in Photovoltaic Systems

Book Description

Incentives provided by European governments have resulted in the rapid growth of the photovoltaic (PV) market. Many PV modules are now commercially available, and there are a number of power electronic systems for processing the electrical power produced by PV systems, especially for grid-connected applications. Filling a gap in the literature, Power Electronics and Control Techniques for Maximum Energy Harvesting in Photovoltaic Systems brings together research on control circuits, systems, and techniques dedicated to the maximization of the electrical power produced by a photovoltaic (PV) source.

Tools to Help You Improve the Efficiency of Photovoltaic Systems

The book supplies an overview of recent improvements in connecting PV systems to the grid and highlights various solutions that can be used as a starting point for further research and development. It begins with a review of methods for modeling a PV array working in uniform and mismatched conditions. The book then discusses several ways to achieve the best maximum power point tracking (MPPT) performance. A chapter focuses on MPPT efficiency, examining the design of the parameters that affect algorithm performance. The authors also address the maximization of the energy harvested in mismatched conditions, in terms of both power architecture and control algorithms, and discuss the distributed MPPT approach. The final chapter details the design of DC/DC converters, which usually perform the MPPT function, with special emphasis on their energy efficiency.

Get Insights from the Experts on How to Effectively Implement MPPT

Written by well-known researchers in the field of photovoltaic systems, this book tackles state-of-the-art issues related to how to extract the maximum electrical power from photovoltaic arrays under any weather condition. Featuring a wealth of examples and illustrations, it offers practical guidance for researchers and industry professionals who want to implement MPPT in photovoltaic systems.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Half Title
  3. Title Page
  4. Copyright Page
  5. Dedication
  6. Table of Contents
  7. Preface
  8. About the Authors
  9. 1 PV Modeling
    1. 1.1 From the Photovoltaic Cell to the Field
    2. 1.2 The Electrical Characteristic of a PV Module
    3. 1.3 The Double-Diode and Single-Diode Models
    4. 1.4 From Data Sheet Values to Model Parameters
      1. 1.4.1 Parameters Identification Assuming Rp — oo
      2. 1.4.2 Parameters Identification Including Rp
      3. 1.4.3 Parameters Identification Including Rp: Explicit Solution
      4. 1.4.4 Other Approaches Proposed in Literature
    5. 1.5 Example: PV Module Equivalent Circuit Parameters Calculation
    6. 1.6 The Lambert W Function for Modeling a PV Field
      1. 1.6.1 PV Generator Working in Uniform Conditions
      2. 1.6.2 Modeling a Mismatched PV Generator
    7. 1.7 Example
    8. References
  10. 2 Maximum PoweRpoint Tracking
    1. 2.1 The Dynamic Optimization Problem
    2. 2.2 Fractional Open-Circuit Voltage and Short-Circuit Current
    3. 2.3 Soft Computing Methods
    4. 2.4 The Perturb and Observe Approach
      1. 2.4.1 Performance Optimization: Steady-State and Dynamic Conditions
      2. 2.4.2 Rapidly Changing Irradiance Conditions
      3. 2.4.3 P&O Design Example: A PV Battery Charger
    5. 2.5 Improvements of the P&O Algorithm
      1. 2.5.1 P&O with Adaptive Step Size
      2. 2.5.2 P&O with Parabolic Approximation
    6. 2.6 Evolution of the Perturbative Method
      1. 2.6.1 Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO)
      2. 2.6.2 Extremum Seeking and Ripple Correlation Techniques
      3. 2.6.3 The Incremental Conductance Method
    7. 2.7 PV MPPT via Output Parameters
      1. 2.7.1 The TEODI Approach
    8. 2.8 MPPT Efficiency
    9. References
  11. 3 MPPT Efficiency: Noise Sources and Methods for Reducing Their Effects
    1. 3.1 Low-Frequency Disturbances in Single-Phase Applications…
      1. 3.1.1 The Perturb and Observe Approach Applied to Closed-Loop Switching Converters
      2. 3.1.2 Example of P&O Design for a Closed-Loop Boost Converter
    2. 3.2 Instability of the Current-Based MPPT Algorithms
    3. 3.3 Sliding Mode in PV System
      1. 3.3.1 Noise Rejection by Sliding Mode: Numerical Example
      2. 3.3.2 MPPT Current Control by Sliding Mode
        1. 3.3.2.1 Basic Configuration of Sliding Mode with Voltage Controller
        2. 3.3.2.2 Voltage Controller Design
      3. 3.3.3 Sliding Mode MPPT Controller: Numerical Example
    4. 3.4 Analysis of the MPPT Performances in a Noisy Environment
      1. 3.4.1 Noise Attenuation by Using Low-Pass Filters
      2. 3.4.2 Error Compensation by Increasing the Step Perturbation
      3. 3.4.3 ADC Quantization Error in the P&O Algorithm: Numerical Example
    5. References
  12. 4 Distributed Maximum PoweRpoint Tracking of Photovoltaic Arrays
    1. 4.1 Limitations of Standard MPPT
    2. 4.2 A New Approach: Distributed MPPT
      1. 4.2.1 DMPPT by Means of Microinverters
      2. 4.2.2 DMPPT by Means of DC/DC Converters
    3. 4.3 DC Analysis of a PV Array with DMPPT
      1. 4.3.1 Feasible Operating Regions
      2. 4.3.2 Examples of Feasible Operating Regions
      3. 4.3.3 I-V and P-V Characteristics of Boost-Based SCPVMs
      4. 4.3.4 I-V and P-V Characteristics of Buckboost-Based SCPVMs
    4. 4.4 Optimal Operating Range of the DC Inverter Input Voltage
    5. 4.5 AC Analysis of a PV Array with DMPPT
      1. 4.5.1 AC Model of a Single SCPVM
      2. 4.5.2 Small-Signal Model of a Photovoltaic Array with DMPPT
      3. 4.5.3 Stability of a String of SCPVMs
    6. References
  13. 5 Design of High-Energy-Efficiency Power Converters foRpV MPPT Applications
    1. 5.1 Introduction
    2. 5.2 Power, Energy, Efficiency
    3. 5.3 Energy Harvesting in PV Plant Using DMPPT Power Converters
    4. 5.4 Losses in Power Converters
    5. 5.5 Losses in the Synchronous FET Switching Cells
    6. 5.6 Conduction Losses
    7. 5.7 Switching Losses
      1. 5.7.1 Turn ON
      2. 5.7.2 Turn OFF
      3. 5.7.3 Thermal Analysis
      4. 5.7.4 Example
    8. References
  14. Index