Chapter 2. I/O Interfaces

An Input/Output (I/O) interface, when in operation, produces current in power and ground nodes. This current produces the noise, which is the source for the power integrity effects. The rate of change of current and the effective loop inductance of the Power Distribution Network (PDN) determine the noise. This chapter examines the current flow paths when different types of drivers are in operation. The currents at the power node are dependent upon the termination schemes. An example is provided on how the current changes when the termination scheme is altered from the center tap to the power termination for a push-pull driver. When multiple drivers are switching, the overall current in the PDN at the driver chip increases ...

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