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Power Plant Engineering

Book Description

* Information on contemporary topics in power plant technology such as super critical boiler technology * Practical approach to delineate complex topics with visual aids and representational schemes * Exhaustive coverage of power generation from non-conventional sources of energy * Ample solved examples, multiple-choice and exercise questions for practice

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Contents
  4. Preface
  5. About the Author
  6. 1. Introduction to Power Plants
    1. 1.1 Introduction to the sources of energy: conventional and non-conventional principle of power generation
      1. 1.1.1 Conventional energy sources
      2. 1.1.2 Non-conventional energy sources
    2. 1.2 Factors affecting selection of site
      1. 1.2.1 The factors to be considered for site selection of steam power plants
      2. 1.2.2 Factors affecting selection of site for hydro-electric power plant
      3. 1.2.3 Factors affecting selection of site for a nuclear power plant
    3. 1.3 Principal types of power plants
    4. 1.4 Present status and future trends
    5. 1.5 Layout of steam, hydel, diesel, nuclear and gas turbine power plants
      1. 1.5.1 Layout of steam turbine plant
      2. 1.5.2 Layout of hydro-electric plant
      3. 1.5.3 Plant layout of diesel engine plant
      4. 1.5.4 Layout of a nuclear plant
      5. 1.5.5 Layout of gas turbine plant
    6. 1.6 Combined power cycles – comparison and selection
    7. 1.7 Merits of steam, gas, diesel, hydro and nuclear power plants
      1. 1.7.1 Advantages and disadvantages of the gas turbine plant
      2. 1.7.2 Advantages and disadvantages of the nuclear plant
      3. 1.7.3 Advantages and disadvantages of diesel plants
      4. 1.7.4 Advantages of hydro-electric power plants
    8. 1.8 Resources and development of power in India
      1. 1.8.1 Coal and lignite
    9. 1.9 Petroleum and natural gas
    10. 1.10 Present status of power generation in India
    11. 1.11 Role of private and government organization
    12. 1.12 State-level scenario, load shedding
    13. 1.13 Carbon credits
    14. 1.14 Questions
      1. 1.14.1 Objective questions
      2. 1.14.2 Review questions
      3. 1.14.3 References
  7. 2. Fuels and Combustion
    1. 2.1 Introduction
    2. 2.2 Classification of fuels and different types of fuels used for steam generation
      1. 2.2.1 Solid fuels
      2. 2.2.2 Liquid fuels
      3. 2.2.3 Gaseous fuels
      4. 2.2.4 Nuclear fuels
    3. 2.3 Calorific values of fuels
      1. 2.3.1 Higher calorific value and lower calorific value of fuels
      2. 2.3.2 Experimental procedure for determining CV of fuels
    4. 2.4 Combustion of fuels
      1. 2.4.1 Minimum air required per kilogram of liquid fuel for complete combustion
      2. 2.4.2 Minimum air required per cubic metre of gaseous fuel for complete combustion
      3. 2.4.3 Combustion equation for a hydrocarbon fuel
      4. 2.4.4 Flue gas analysis
      5. 2.4.5 Conversion of gravimetric analysis to volumetric analysis and vice versa
      6. 2.4.6 Mass of air supplied per kilogram of fuel
      7. 2.4.7 Carbon burnt to CO2 and CO
      8. 2.4.8 Excess air supplied
    5. 2.5 Properties of coal, Indian coals
      1. 2.5.1 Analysis of coal
      2. 2.5.2 Indian coals
    6. 2.6 Selection of coal in thermal power station
      1. 2.6.1 Geological resources of coal in India
      2. 2.6.2 Status of coal resources in India during the past five years
    7. 2.7 Questions
      1. 2.7.1 Objective questions
      2. 2.7.2 Review questions
  8. 3. Fuel-Handling Systems
    1. 3.1 Coal handling
      1. 3.1.1 Outplant handling of coal
      2. 3.1.2 Storage of coal
      3. 3.1.3 Inplant handling of coal
      4. 3.1.4 Inplant handling system
      5. 3.1.5 Stages of coal handling
    2. 3.2 Choice of handling equipment
    3. 3.3 Fuel burning
      1. 3.3.1 Overfeed and underfeed fuel bed stokers
    4. 3.4 Equipment for burning coal in lump form
      1. 3.4.1 Chain grate stoker
      2. 3.4.2 Travelling grate stoker
      3. 3.4.3 Spreader stoker
      4. 3.4.4 Retort stoker
    5. 3.5 Advantages and disadvantages of stoker firing over pulverized system of firing
    6. 3.6 Preparation and burning of pulverized coal
      1. 3.6.1 Unit or direct system
      2. 3.6.2 Bin or central system
      3. 3.6.3 Advantages and disadvantages of pulverized coal burning
    7. 3.7 Pulverized fuel furnaces (burners)
    8. 3.8 Pulverized mills
      1. 3.8.1 Causes for mill fires
    9. 3.9 Fuel-burning equipments
      1. 3.9.1 Coal burners
      2. 3.9.2 Oil burners
      3. 3.9.3 Gas burners
    10. 3.10 Flue gas analysis
      1. 3.10.1 Procedure
    11. 3.11 Ash handling system
      1. 3.11.1 Advantages and disadvantages of wet and dry ash-handling systems
    12. 3.12 Dust collection
      1. 3.12.1 Mechanical dust collectors
      2. 3.12.2 Electrical dust collector (electrostatic precipitators)
      3. 3.12.3 Soot blowers
    13. 3.13 Questions
      1. 3.13.1 Objective questions
      2. 3.13.2 Review questions
  9. 4. Steam Power Plant
    1. 4.1 Introduction
    2. 4.2 General layout of modern thermal power plant
    3. 4.3 Rankine and modified rankine cycles
      1. 4.3.1 Carnot cycle
      2. 4.3.2 Rankine cycle
      3. 4.3.3 Modified rankine cycle
      4. 4.3.4 Reheat cycle
      5. 4.3.5 Regenerative cycle
    4. 4.4 Working of different circuits
    5. 4.5 Selection of site for steam power plants
    6. 4.6 Questions
      1. 4.6.1 Objective questions
      2. 4.6.2 Review questions
  10. 5. Steam Generator
    1. 5.1 Fossil fuel steam generators
    2. 5.2 Classification of boilers
      1. 5.2.1 Fire tube boilers and water tube boilers
      2. 5.2.2 Stationary and mobile boilers
      3. 5.2.3 Internally fired and externally fired boilers
      4. 5.2.4 Horizontal, vertical and inclined tube boilers
      5. 5.2.5 Based on heat sources
      6. 5.2.6 Natural circulation and forced circulation boilers
      7. 5.2.7 Comparison of water tube boilers and fire tube boilers
    3. 5.3 Circulation in water tube boilers
    4. 5.4 Modern high-pressure water tube boilers
      1. 5.4.1 Generation of steam using forced circulation, high and supercritical pressures
      2. 5.4.2 A brief account of modern steam generators
    5. 5.5 Boiler performance calculations
      1. 5.5.1 Turbine efficiency
      2. 5.5.2 Rankine cycle efficiency (ηc )
      3. 5.5.3 Generator efficiency (ηg )
      4. 5.5.4 Overall turbo-alternator efficiency (ηota )
      5. 5.5.5 Heat rate
      6. 5.5.6 Boiler performance
    6. 5.6 Accessories for the steam generator
      1. 5.6.1 Superheaters arrangement
      2. 5.6.2 Control of superheaters
      3. 5.6.3 Reheaters
      4. 5.6.4 Economizers
      5. 5.6.5 Air preheaters
    7. 5.7 Boiler mountings
      1. 5.7.1 Water-level indicator
      2. 5.7.2 Pressure gauge
      3. 5.7.3 Steam stop valve or junction valve
      4. 5.7.4 Feed check valve
      5. 5.7.5 Blow-down valve or blow-off-cock
      6. 5.7.6 Fusible plug
      7. 5.7.7 Safety valves
    8. 5.8 Questions
      1. 5.8.1 Objective questions
      2. 5.8.2 Review questions
  11. 6. Fluidized Bed Combustion
    1. 6.1 Introduction to fluidized bed combustion
    2. 6.2 Regimes of combustion
    3. 6.3 Fluidized bed boilers – classification
      1. 6.3.1 Atmospheric FBC system or bubbling fbc
      2. 6.3.2 Circulating FBC
      3. 6.3.3 Pressurized FBC system
    4. 6.4 Advantages of FBC system
    5. 6.5 Control of oxides of nitrogen
    6. 6.6 Desulphurization technology
    7. 6.7 Questions
      1. 6.7.1 Objective questions
      2. 6.7.2 Review questions
      3. 6.7.3 References
  12. 7. Draught System
    1. 7.1 Introduction to draught system
    2. 7.2 Air and supply systems (natural mechanical draught systems)
    3. 7.3 Chimneys
    4. 7.4 Calculations involving height of chimney to produce a given draught
      1. 7.4.1 Chimney height and diameter
      2. 7.4.2 Condition for maximum discharge through a chimney
      3. 7.4.3 Chimney efficiency
    5. 7.5 Questions
      1. 7.5.1 Objective questions
      2. 7.5.2 Review questions
  13. 8. Feed Water Treatment
    1. 8.1 Feed water system – necessity
      1. 8.1.1 Feed water impurities
    2. 8.2 Feed water treatment
      1. 8.2.1 Mechanical methods
      2. 8.2.2 Thermal methods
      3. 8.2.3 Chemical methods
    3. 8.3 Questions
      1. 8.3.1 Objective questions
      2. 8.3.2 Review questions
  14. 9. Flow Through Nozzles
    1. 9.1 Introduction
    2. 9.2 Types of steam nozzles
    3. 9.3 Flow of steam through nozzle
    4. 9.4 Discharge through nozzle and critical pressure ratio
    5. 9.5 Effect of friction and nozzle efficiency
    6. 9.6 Supersaturated flow
    7. 9.7 Relation between area, velocity and pressure in nozzle flow
    8. 9.8 Characteristics of converging–diverging nozzle
    9. 9.9 Steam injector
    10. 9.10 Questions
      1. 9.10.1 Objective questions
      2. 9.10.2 Review questions
  15. 10. Steam Turbines
    1. 10.1 Introduction to steam turbines
    2. 10.2 Turbine types
      1. 10.2.1 Impulse turbine working principle
      2. 10.2.2 Reaction turbine
    3. 10.3 Simple impulse turbines
      1. 10.3.1 Flow through turbine blades and velocity diagram
      2. 10.3.2 Compounding of steam turbines
      3. 10.3.3 Impulse turbine power and related calculations
      4. 10.3.4 Multistage impulse turbine
    4. 10.4 Reaction turbines
      1. 10.4.1 Flow through blades and velocity diagram
      2. 10.4.2 Degree of reaction
      3. 10.4.3 Parson’s reaction turbine
      4. 10.4.4 Power and related calculations
      5. 10.4.5 Blade height calculations
      6. 10.4.6 Bleeding in steam turbines
    5. 10.5 Losses in steam turbines
    6. 10.6 Reheat factor and condition line
      1. 10.6.1 Stage efficiency per stage
      2. 10.6.2 Reheat factor
      3. 10.6.3 Internal turbine efficiency
    7. 10.7 Governing of turbines
    8. 10.8 Questions
      1. 10.8.1 Objective questions
      2. 10.8.2 Review questions
  16. 11. Steam Condenser and Circulating Water Systems
    1. 11.1 Introduction to condenser and its necessity
      1. 11.1.1 Function of a condenser
      2. 11.1.2 Elements of a condensing plant
    2. 11.2 Classification and types of condensers
      1. 11.2.1 Direct-contact condensers
      2. 11.2.2 Surface condensers
      3. 11.2.3 Evaporative condenser
    3. 11.3 Surface condenser performance
      1. 11.3.3 Vacuum and vacuum efficiency
    4. 11.4 Cooling tower
      1. 11.4.1 Types
      2. 11.4.2 Principle of operation and performance
      3. 11.4.3 Location of cooling tower
    5. 11.5 Cooling ponds
      1. 11.5.1 Cooling pond
      2. 11.5.2 Types of cooling ponds
    6. 11.6 Corrosion in condensers and boilers
    7. 11.7 Corrosion in boilers
      1. 11.7.1 Acidic corrosion
      2. 11.7.2 Galvanic corrosion
      3. 11.7.3 Steam blanketing
      4. 11.7.4 Oxygen attack
      5. 11.7.5 Carbon dioxide attack
    8. 11.8 Questions
      1. 11.8.1 Objective questions
      2. 11.8.2 Review questions
  17. 12. Gas Turbine Power Plant
    1. 12.1 Introduction
      1. 12.1.1 Joule or brayton cycle
    2. 12.2 Classification of gas turbines
      1. 12.2.1 Principle of working of open- and closed-cycle gas turbines
      2. 12.2.2 Comparison of open and closed-cycle turbines
    3. 12.3 Construction and plant layout with auxiliaries
      1. 12.3.1 Components of a gas turbine
      2. 12.3.2 Centrifugal compressor
      3. 12.3.3 Main parts of a centrifugal compressor
      4. 12.3.4 Impeller and diffuser
      5. 12.3.5 Diffuser
      6. 12.3.6 Axial centrifugal compressor
      7. 12.3.7 Stage velocity triangles
      8. 12.3.8 Work input to compressor
      9. 12.3.9 Work done factor
      10. 12.3.10 Degree of reaction
    4. 12.4 Fuel and fuel systems
      1. 12.4.1 Natural gas
      2. 12.4.2 Liquefied natural gas
      3. 12.4.3 Liquid fuels
    5. 12.5 Gas turbine material
    6. 12.6 Advantages and disadvantages of the gas turbine plant
      1. 12.6.1 Advantages and disadvantages of gas turbine plant
    7. 12.7 Method of improving output and performance
      1. 12.7.1 Reheating
      2. 12.7.2 Regeneration
      3. 12.7.3 Intercooling
    8. 12.8 Free-piston engine plant – limitation, application and advantages
    9. 12.9 Combined cycle power plants and comparison
      1. 12.9. 1 Combined cycle principles of operation
      2. 12.9.2 Coupled cycle – GT–ST plant operation
      3. 12.9.3 Thermodynamic analysis of a simple combined cycle GT–ST plant
    10. 12.10 Layout of gas turbine plant
    11. 12.11 Questions
      1. 12.11.1 Objective questions
      2. 12.11.2 Review questions
      3. 12.11.3 References
  18. 13. Diesel Engine Power Plant
    1. 13.1 Introduction to diesel engine plant
      1. 13.1.1 IC engine nomenclature
      2. 13.1.2 Standard terminology
      3. 13.1.3 Four-stroke diesel engine
      4. 13.1.4 Two-stroke diesel engine
    2. 13.2 Types of diesel plants and components
    3. 13.3 Selection of engine type and engine size
    4. 13.4 Plant layout with auxiliaries
    5. 13.5 Fuel supply system
      1. 13.5.1 Fuel injection system
      2. 13.5.2 Types of fuel injection systems
    6. 13.6 Super charging
    7. 13.7 Method of starting diesel engines
    8. 13.8 Cooling and lubrication system for the diesel engine
      1. 13.8.1 Engine cooling system
      2. 13.8.2 Lubrication system
      3. 13.8.3 Filters, centrifuges and oil heaters
    9. 13.9 Intake and exhaust systems
      1. 13.9.1 Intake system
      2. 13.9.2 Exhaust system
    10. 13.10 Application of diesel power plant, advantages and disadvantages
      1. 13.10.1 Comparison with stream power plants
    11. 13.11 Layout of diesel plant
    12. 13.12 Diesel engine performance and operation
    13. 13.13 Questions
      1. 13.13.1 Review questions
  19. 14. Power from Non-Conventional Sources
    1. 14.1 Recent developments in methods of power generation
      1. 14.1.1 Conventional energy sources
      2. 14.1.2 Non-conventional energy sources
    2. 14.2 Utilization of solar energy
      1. 14.2.1 Solar radiation
      2. 14.2.2 Solar radiation at earth’s surface
      3. 14.2.3 Basic definitions of solar angles
      4. 14.2.4 Solar constant and intensity of solar radiation
      5. 14.2.5 Average solar radiation or monthly average daily global radiation
      6. 14.2.6 Solar radiation on tilted surfaces
      7. 14.2.7 Solar energy collectors
      8. 14.2.8 Photovoltaic power system
      9. 14.2.9 Solar central receiver system
    3. 14.3 Wind energy
      1. 14.3.1 Generation of wind energy
      2. 14.3.2 Wind turbine operation
      3. 14.3.3 Components of a wind generator
      4. 14.3.4 Velocity and power from wind
      5. 14.3.5 Wind turbine operation
      6. 14.3.6 Horizontal and vertical axis (HAWT, VAWT) wind mills
      7. 14.3.7 Aerodynamic considerations of wind mill design
      8. 14.3.8 Coefficient of performance of wind mill rotor
      9. 14.3.9 Availability of wind energy in India
      10. 14.3.10 Wind power by country
    4. 14.4 Tidal energy
      1. 14.4.1 The simple single pool tidal system
      2. 14.4.2 The modulated single pool tidal system
      3. 14.4.3 The two-pool tidal system
    5. 14.5 Ocean thermal energy conversion
      1. 14.5.1 Principle of working
      2. 14.5.2 Ocean temperature differences
      3. 14.5.3 The open or claude cycle
      4. 14.5.4 The closed or anderson OTEC cycle
    6. 14.6 Wave energy
      1. 14.6.1 Energy and power from waves
      2. 14.6.2 Wave energy conversion by floats
      3. 14.6.3 High-pressure accumulator wave machines
    7. 14.7 Fuel cells
      1. 14.7.1 Working principle
      2. 14.7.2 Types of fuel cells
    8. 14.8 Thermoelectric and thermionic power
      1. 14.8.1 Thermoelectric power
      2. 14.8.2 Thermionic converter
    9. 14.9 MHD generation
    10. 14.10 Geothermal energy
      1. 14.10.1 A typical geothermal field
      2. 14.10.2 Hydrothermal systems
      3. 14.10.3 Petro thermal systems
      4. 14.10.4 Hybrid geothermal fossil systems
      5. 14.10.5 Problems associated with geothermal conversion
    11. 14.11 Electricity from city refuge
    12. 14.12 Questions
      1. 14.12.1 Objective questions
      2. 14.12.2 Review questions
  20. 15. Hydroelectric Power Plant
    1. 15.1 Introduction to water power
    2. 15.2 Hydrological cycle
    3. 15.3 Rainfall and its measurement
      1. 15.3.1 Intensity of rainfall
      2. 15.3.2 Measurement of rainfall
      3. 15.3.3 Location of rain gauge
      4. 15.3.4 Average or mean depth of rainfall
      5. 15.3.5 Run-off and its measurement
    4. 15.4 Hydrographs
      1. 15.4.1 The unit hydrograph
    5. 15.5 Flow duration and mass duration curves
      1. 15.5.1 Flow duration curve
      2. 15.5.2 Mass curve and storage
    6. 15.6 Hydro electric plant – introduction
      1. 15.6.1 Site selection for hydel power plants
      2. 15.6.2 General arrangement of hydroelectric power plant
      3. 15.6.3 Plant layout
      4. 15.6.4 Penstock and water hammer
      5. 15.6.5 Specific speed and capacity calculations
    7. 15.7 Classification of hydro-plant
      1. 15.7.1 Low-, medium- and high-head plants
      2. 15.7.2 Pumped storage plant
      3. 15.7.3 Run-off river power plant
    8. 15.8 Surge tanks
    9. 15.9 Control gates and valves
      1. 15.9.1 Control gates
      2. 15.9.2 Interior gate valves
    10. 15.10 Classification of dams and spillways
    11. 15.11 Brief description of some of the important hydel installations in India
    12. 15.12 Water turbines
      1. 15.12.1 Selection of turbines
      2. 15.12.2 Classification and types of water turbines
      3. 15.12.3 Governing of turbines
    13. 15.13 Micro hydel developments
    14. 15.14 Project cost of hydroelectric plant
    15. 15.15 Advantages of hydro-power plant
    16. 15.16 Questions
      1. 15.16.1 Review questions
  21. 16. Nuclear Power Plants
    1. 16.1 Introduction to nuclear engineering
      1. 16.1.1 Atomic structure
      2. 16.1.2 Some definitions
    2. 16.2 Radioactive decay, half life
      1. 16.2.1 Radioactive decay
      2. 16.2.2 Half-life
    3. 16.3 Principles of release of nuclear energy
      1. 16.3.1 Fusion and fission reactions
      2. 16.3.2 Breeding and fertile materials
      3. 16.3.3 Nuclear fuels used in the reactors
      4. 16.3.4 Multiplication and thermal utilization factors
      5. 16.3.5 Life cycle of a neutron
    4. 16.4 Nuclear reactor components
    5. 16.5 Classification of nuclear reactors
    6. 16.6 Thermal fission reactors and power plant and their location
      1. 16.6.1 Pressurized water reactor
      2. 16.6.2 Boiling water reactor (BWR)
      3. 16.6.3 CANDU heavy water reactor
      4. 16.6.4 Gas-cooled reactor
      5. 16.6.5 Fast breeder reactors
      6. 16.6.6 Organic substance cooled reactor
    7. 16.7 Reactor control
    8. 16.8 Radiation hazards
      1. 16.8.1 Handling of nuclear waste and safety measures
      2. 16.8.2 Radioactive waste disposal
    9. 16.9 Nuclear power generation in India
    10. 16.10 Questions
      1. 16.10.1 Objective questions
      2. 16.10.2 Review questions
      3. 16.10.3 Reference
  22. 17. Power Plant Economics
    1. 17.1 Introduction and basic definitions
    2. 17.2 Types of loads
      1. 17.2.1 Load curves
      2. 17.2.2 Drawing load duration curve
      3. 17.2.3 Effect of variable load on power plant design and operation
      4. 17.2.4 Methods to meet variable load
      5. 17.2.5 Prediction of future loads
    3. 17.3 Terminology used in power supply
    4. 17.4 Cost of electrical energy
      1. 17.4.1 Depreciation
    5. 17.5 Energy rates (tariffs) for electrical energy
      1. 17.5.1 Different types of tariffs
    6. 17.6 Selection of types of generation and generating equipment
      1. 17.6.1 Steam power plants
      2. 17.6.2 Diesel engine plants
      3. 17.6.3 Gas turbine power plant
      4. 17.6.4 Hydro-electric power plant
    7. 17.7 Selection of the number and size of units
    8. 17.8 Factors affecting economics of generation and distribution of power
    9. 17.9 Planning for power generation in India (source: KPMG India)
    10. 17.10 Power achievement, target v/s achieved
    11. 17.11 Questions
      1. 17.11.1 Objective questions
      2. 17.11.2 Review questions
  23. 18. Environmental Aspects of Power Station
    1. 18.1 Environmental aspects
      1. 18.1.1 Constituents of the atmosphere
      2. 18.1.2 Different pollutants due to thermal power plant and their effect on human health
      3. 18.1.3 Environmental control of different pollutants such as particulate matter PM
      4. 18.1.4 Oxides of sulphur
      5. 18.1.5 Oxides of nitrogen
      6. 18.1.6 Oxides of carbon
    2. 18.2 Global warming and green house effect
    3. 18.3 Thermal pollution of water and its control
    4. 18.4 Acid precipitation – acid rain and acid snow
    5. 18.5 Effluents from power plants and impact on environment
      1. 18.5.1 Radiation from nuclear power plant effluents
      2. 18.5.2 Pollution standards
      3. 18.5.3 Methods of pollution control
    6. 18.6 Environmental impact of power plant: social and economical issues of the power plants
      1. 18.6.1 Land and air space
      2. 18.6.2 Water
      3. 18.6.3 Solid waste
      4. 18.6.4 Construction and operation
      5. 18.6.5 Noise
      6. 18.6.6 Economical aspects
    7. 18.7 Questions
      1. 18.7.1 Objective questions
      2. 18.7.2 Review questions
      3. 18.7.3 References
  24. 19. Instrumentation and Equipments in Power Station
    1. 19.1 Elements of instrumentation
      1. 19.1.1 Process control system
      2. 19.1.2 Operational monitoring system
      3. 19.1.3 Automatic generation control system
      4. 19.1.4 Load frequency control system
      5. 19.1.5 Power plant maintenance
      6. 19.1.6 Plant monitoring system
    2. 19.2 Important instruments on steam generator and turbine
      1. 19.2.1 Drum water-level control
    3. 19.3 Combustion control
      1. 19.3.1 Super heat temperature control
    4. 19.4 Introduction to generator and exciters
      1. 19.4.1 The elementary AC generator
      2. 19.4.2 Development of the sine wave
      3. 19.4.3 Types of generators
      4. 19.4.4 Generator parts and function
      5. 19.4.5 The exciter
    5. 19.5 Earthing of power system
    6. 19.6 Power and unit transformer
    7. 19.7 Circuit breakers
    8. 19.8 Protective equipments
    9. 19.9 Control board equipment
      1. 19.9.1 Control room instrumentation
    10. 19.10 Switch gear for power station auxiliaries
    11. 19.11 Testing of power plants and heat balance
      1. 19.11.1 British standards, BS845: 1987
      2. 19.11.2 ASME standard: PTC-4-1 power test code for steam generating units
      3. 19.11.3 IS 8753: Indian standard for boiler efficiency testing
      4. 19.11.4 The indirect method testing
      5. 19.11.5 Energy balance sheet
    12. 19.12 Questions
      1. 19.12.1 Objective questions
      2. 19.12.2 Review questions
      3. 19.12.3 References