Chapter 2

Harmonic Models of Transformers

Abstract

Investigates the behaviour of power transformers under harmonic voltages and currents: sinusoidal transformer models suitable for harmonic loss calculations and harmonic power flow; techniques for the computation of transformer derating such as K and FHL-factors based on direct-loss measurements. Transformer harmonic models, state-space formulations and finite-difference magnetic field modelling techniques are presented. Ferroresonance, geomagnetically induced currents (GICs), transformer grounding, and surge protection issues are addressed next. Grounding techniques, derating of three-phase transformers, and the accurate loss measurement based on the direct-loss measurement approach are ...

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