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Power System Small Signal Stability Analysis and Control

Book Description

Power System Small Signal Stability Analysis and Control presents a detailed analysis of the problem of severe outages due to the sustained growth of small signal oscillations in modern interconnected power systems. The ever-expanding nature of power systems and the rapid upgrade to smart grid technologies call for the implementation of robust and optimal controls. Power systems that are forced to operate close to their stability limit have resulted in the use of control devices by utility companies to improve the performance of the transmission system against commonly occurring power system disturbances.

This book demonstrates how the application of power system damping controllers such as Power System Stabilizers (PSSs) and Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System (FACTS) controllers—namely Static Var Compensator (SVC) and Thyristor Controlled Series Compensator (TCSC)—can guard against system disruptions. Power System Small Signal Stability Analysis and Control examines the signal stability problem, providing an overview and analysis of the concepts and of the controllers used to mitigate it. Detailed mathematical derivations, illustrated case studies, the application of soft computation techniques, designs of robust controllers, and end-of-chapter exercises make it a useful resource to researchers, practicing engineers, and post-graduates in electrical engineering.

  • Examines the power system small signal stability problem and various ways to mitigate it
  • Offers a new and simple method of finding the optimal location of PSS in a multi-machine power system
  • Provides relevant exercises to further illustrate chapter-specific content

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Table of Contents
  4. Copyright
  5. Dedication
  6. Acknowledgments
  7. Author Biography
  8. Preface
  9. Chapter 1: Concepts of Small-Signal Stability
    1. Abstract
    2. 1.1 Introduction
    3. 1.2 Swing equation
    4. 1.3 Nature of oscillations
    5. 1.4 Modes of oscillations and its study procedure
    6. 1.5 Synchronizing torque and damping torque
    7. 1.6 Small-signal oscillations in a synchronous generator connected to an infinite bus
    8. 1.7 An illustration
    9. Exercises
  10. Chapter 2: Fundamental Models of Synchronous Machine
    1. Abstract
    2. 2.1 Introduction
    3. 2.2 Synchronous machine dynamic model in the a–b–c reference frame
    4. 2.3 Park's transformation and dynamic model in the d–q–o reference frame
    5. 2.4 Per unit (PU) representation and scaling [2]
    6. 2.5 Physical significance of PU system
    7. 2.6 Stator flux–current relationships
    8. 2.7 Rotor dynamic equations
    9. 2.8 Reduced order model
    10. 2.9 Equivalent circuit of the stator algebraic equations
    11. 2.10 Synchronous machine exciter
  11. Chapter 3: Models of Power Network and Relevant Power Equipments
    1. Abstract
    2. 3.1 Introduction
    3. 3.2 Simple model of a synchronous generator
    4. 3.3 Steady-state modeling of synchronous machine (Analytical aspects) [1]
    5. 3.4 Governor model [2]
    6. 3.5 Turbine model [2]
    7. 3.6 Power network model
    8. 3.7 Modeling of load
    9. 3.8 Power system stabilizer
    10. 3.9 Model of FACTS devices
  12. Chapter 4: Small-Signal Stability Analysis in SMIB Power System
    1. Abstract
    2. 4.1 Introduction
    3. 4.2 Heffron–Philips model of SMIB power system
    4. 4.3 Small-Signal stability analysis using state-space model and block diagram
    5. 4.4 An illustration
    6. 4.5 Effect of Generator Field
    7. 4.6 Effect of excitation system
    8. 4.7 An illustration
  13. Chapter 5: Small-Signal Stability Analysis in Multimachine System
    1. Abstract
    2. 5.1 Introduction
    3. 5.2 Multimachine small-signal model
    4. 5.3 Computation of initial conditions of the state variables
    5. 5.4 Identification of electromechanical swing modes
    6. 5.5 An illustration: A test case
  14. Chapter 6: Mitigation of Small-Signal Stability Problem Employing Power System Stabilizer
    1. Abstract
    2. 6.1 Introduction
    3. 6.2 The application of PSS in an SMIB system
    4. 6.3 Multimachine Small-Signal stability improvement
    5. 6.4 Development of a location selection indicator of PSS
    6. 6.5 Effect of load
  15. Chapter 7: Application of FACTS Controller
    1. Abstract
    2. 7.1 Introduction
    3. 7.2 FACTS technology [6]
    4. 7.3 Application of SVC in small-signal stability improvement
    5. 7.4 Application of a TCSC controller in an SMIB system
    6. 7.5 Multimachine application of SVC
    7. 7.6 Application of TCSC in a multimachine power system
    8. 7.7 Voltage source converter-based FACTS device (STATCOM)
    9. 7.8 Application of TCSC in a longitudinal power system
  16. Chapter 8: Optimal and Robust Control
    1. Abstract
    2. 8.1 Introduction
    3. 8.2 Genetic algorithm-based optimization
    4. 8.3 Particle swarm optimization
    5. 8.4 Implication of SVC and TCSC controllers on critical loading
    6. 8.5 Comparison between PSO- and GA-based Designs
    7. 8.6 H∞ optimal control
    8. 8.7 Multiarea Closed-Loop control
  17. Nomenclature
  18. Appendix A: Fundamental Concepts
    1. A.1 Generalized concept of stability-brief review
    2. A.2 Aspect of linearization
    3. A.3 System matrix and its eigen properties
    4. A.4 What are Semi-Definite Programming (SDP) problems?
  19. Appendix B: Data Used for Relevant Power System Components
    1. B.1 SMIB system
    2. B.2 WSCC type 3 machine, 9 bus system
    3. B.3 Two-area system
    4. B.4 IEEE type 14-bus test system
    5. B.5 14-Area, 24-machine, 203-bus system
  20. Index