CHAPTER 8

Operational Amplifiers

Operational amplifiers (op amps) are incredibly useful high-performance differential amplifiers that can be employed in a number of amazing ways. A typical op amp is an integrated device with a noninverting input, an inverting input, two dc power supply leads (positive and negative), an output terminal, and a few other specialized leads used for fine-tuning. The positive and negative supply leads, as well as the fine-tuning leads, are often omitted from circuit schematics. If you do not see any supply leads, assume that a dual supply is being used.

Note that we have labeled the supply voltages +Vs and -Vs, as they are usually the same. However, they do not need to be, as you will see when we look at single-supply ...

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