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Practical Holography, 4th Edition

Book Description

Continuing in the steps of its predecessors, the fourth edition of Practical Holography provides the most comprehensive and up-to-date resource available. Focused on practical techniques in holography at all levels, it avoids any unnecessary mathematical theory.Features of the Fourth EditionHighlights new information on color holograms, sensitive m

Table of Contents

  1. Foreword to the First Edition
  2. Preface to the Fourth Edition by Graham Saxby
  3. Preface to the Fourth Edition by Stanislovas (Stas) Zacharovas
  4. Preface to the First Edition
  5. Authors
  6. Abbreviations
  7. In Memoriam to Graham Saxby
  8. Section I - Principles of Holography
    1. Chapter 1 - What Is a Hologram?
      1. Stereoscopy
      2. Defining the Goal
      3. Goal Achieved
      4. Interference
      5. Experiment with Interference Fringes
      6. Diffraction
      7. Amplitude and Phase Gratings
    2. Chapter 2 - Brief History of Holography
      1. References
    3. Chapter 3 - Light Sources for Holography
      1. Light as an Electromagnetic Phenomenon
      2. Propagation of Electromagnetic Waves
      3. Oscillators
      4. Properties of Light Beams
        1. Spatial Coherence
        2. Temporal Coherence
        3. Phase Coherence
        4. Polarization
      5. Atoms and Energy
      6. Stimulated Emission
      7. Three-Level Solid-State (Ruby) Laser
      8. Ruby Pulse Laser
      9. Four-Level Solid-State Laser
      10. Four-Level Solid-State Lasing Media
      11. Q-Switching
        1. Active Q-Switching
        2. Passive Q-switching
      12. Frequency Doubling and Tripling
      13. Construction of Nd:YAG (Nd:YLF)/Nd:Phosphate Glass Pulse Laser
      14. Four-Level Gas Lasers
      15. Mirrors and Windows in CW Lasers
      16. Helium–Neon Laser
      17. Laser Beam Shapers
      18. Ion Lasers
        1. Helium–Cadmium Laser
        2. Argon-Ion Laser
        3. Krypton-Ion Laser
        4. Tunable Lasers
      19. Semiconductor (Diode) Lasers
      20. Diode-Pumped Solid-State Lasers
      21. Fiber Lasers
      22. Lasers for Color Holography
      23. Pseudowhite Laser for Holography
      24. Lasers and Safety
      25. Warning Notices
      26. Avoiding Accidents
      27. Protective Eyewear
      28. Pulse Laser Safety
      29. Laser Itself
      30. Further Reading
      31. References
    4. Chapter 4 - Basic Types of Hologram
      1. Laser Transmission Holograms
      2. Replaying the Image
      3. Real Image
      4. White-Light Reflection Holograms
      5. Phase Holograms
      6. Image-Plane Holograms
      7. White-Light Transmission Holograms
        1. Focused-Image Holograms
        2. Full-Aperture Transfer Hologram
        3. Rainbow Holograms
        4. Achromatic Transmission Holograms
        5. Pseudocolor Transmission Holograms
      8. Other Types of Holograms
        1. Achromatic Holograms
        2. Far-Field (in-line) Holograms
        3. Holographic Interferograms
        4. Fourier-Transform Holograms
      9. Holographic Stereograms
      10. Color Holography
        1. Pseudocolor Holograms
      11. Digitally Printed Holograms
      12. Digital Projection Holograms
      13. Surface Plasmon Holograms
      14. Embossed Holograms
      15. References
    5. Chapter 5 - Materials, Exposure, and Processing
      1. Silver Halide Materials
        1. Life of an Emulsion
        2. Grain Size
        3. Sensitivity
        4. Shelf Life of Silver Halide Materials
      2. Silver Halide Processing
      3. Constituents of a Developer
      4. Developer Classifications
        1. Chemical Development
      5. Bleaches
        1. Solvent Bleach
        2. Rehalogenating Bleach
      6. Dichromated Gelatin
      7. Rendering Dichromated Gelatin Sensitive to Red Light
      8. Coating Plates
      9. Exposing
      10. Processing
      11. Sealing the Hologram
      12. Color Control
      13. Silver Halide–Sensitized Gelatin
      14. Photopolymers
      15. Photoresists
      16. Erasable Photosensitive Materials
      17. Photothermoplastics
      18. Photochromic Materials
        1. Bacteriorhodopsin
      19. Photorefractive Crystals
        1. Photorefractive Materials
      20. Further Reading
      21. References
  9. Section II - Practical Display Holography
    1. Chapter 6 - Making Your First Hologram
      1. Basic Requirements
      2. Laser
      3. Beam Expander
      4. Support for the Laser
      5. Support for the Plate
      6. Setting Up for the Exposure
      7. Setup with a Small Laser Pointer
      8. Alternative Setup for a Larger Laser
      9. Processing Solutions
      10. Exposing
      11. Processing
      12. Viewing the Image
      13. One-Step Real Image
      14. Protecting and Displaying Your Hologram
      15. Working with Plates
      16. Cutting Glass
      17. Processing Plates
      18. What Went Wrong?
      19. Suppliers of Holographic Materials
      20. Further Reading
    2. Chapter 7 - Single-Beam Denisyuk Techniques
      1. Single-Beam Holograms of Unstable Subject Matter
      2. Building a Single-Beam Frame for a Prone Setup
      3. Rear-Surface Mirror System without Double Reflections
      4. Laser
      5. Triangular Benches
      6. Spatial Filtering
      7. Setting Up with a Spatial Filter
      8. Making an Electrically Operated Shutter
      9. Safelights
      10. Index-Matching Fluid
      11. Exposing and Processing
      12. Getting the Exposure Right
      13. Multiexposure Techniques
      14. Transfer Principle
      15. Making a Reflection Master Hologram
      16. Making a Reflection Transfer Hologram
      17. Making a Transmission Master Hologram
      18. 360° Holograms
        1. Tabletop Holograms
        2. Single-Beam Conical Holograms
        3. Cylindrical Single-Beam Holograms
        4. Double-Sided Holograms
        5. 360° Cylindrical Transmission Holograms
      19. Further Applications of Single-Beam Holograms
      20. Mounting and Finishing Holograms
        1. Reflection Holograms
        2. Transmission Holograms
      21. Troubleshooting
      22. Reference
    3. Chapter 8 - Single-Beam Bypass Holograms
      1. Transmission Master Holograms
        1. Rear-Surface Mirrors
      2. Reflection Master Holograms
      3. Reflection Transfer Holograms
      4. Full-Aperture Transmission Transfer Holograms
      5. Rainbow Holograms
      6. Reflection Holograms from Transmission Masters
      7. Other Configurations
      8. References
    4. Chapter 9 - Building Your Own Holographic Laboratory
      1. Laboratory Space
      2. Optical Table
      3. Building a Sand Table
      4. Building a Concrete Table
      5. Metal Tables
      6. Table Supports
      7. Bases for Optical Components
      8. Excluding Drafts
      9. Mounting the Laser
      10. Gantry for Overhead Equipment
      11. Cantilevers
      12. Draft Exclusion
      13. Processing Area
      14. Storeroom
      15. Display Area
      16. References
    5. Chapter 10 - Making Master Holograms for Transfer
      1. Beamsplitters
        1. Metalized Beamsplitters
        2. Dielectric Beamsplitter
        3. Other Types of Beamsplitter
      2. Illuminating the Subject
        1. Point-Source Illumination
        2. Partly Diffuse Illumination
        3. Fully Diffuse Illumination
        4. Dappled or Patterned Illumination
      3. Component Mountings
      4. Plateholders
      5. Collimating Mirror
      6. How Stable Is Your Table?
        1. Saucer Test
        2. Michelson Interferometer Test
        3. Mach–Zehnder Interferometer Test
      7. Basic Lighting for Transmission Master Holograms
      8. What Went Wrong?
      9. Backlighting and Background Illumination
      10. Silhouettes and Black Holes
      11. Supine Subjects
      12. Frontal Illumination
      13. Multiple-Exposure Techniques
      14. Masters for Rainbow Holograms
      15. Reflection Master Holograms
      16. Optical Fiber Systems for Holography
      17. Multimode Fibers
      18. Single-Mode Fibers
      19. Fiber-Optic Holography on Location
      20. Portable Cameras with Pulse Lasers
      21. References
    6. Chapter 11 - Transfer Reflection Image Holograms
      1. Parallax in Transfer Holograms
      2. Reflection Transfer Holograms from Transmission Masters
      3. How to Deal with Weak Master Images
      4. Side and Underneath Beam Master Transfers
      5. Role of the Bragg Condition
      6. Two-Channel Transfer Holograms
      7. Holograms of Stereoscopic Pairs of Photographs
      8. Multichannel Images
      9. Pellicular Collimating Mirrors
      10. Contact Copying of Holograms
        1. Contact Copies by Scanning
        2. A More Advanced Scanning System
      11. What Went Wrong?
    7. Chapter 12 - White-Light Transmission Transfer and Rainbow Holograms
      1. Full-Aperture Transfer Holograms
      2. Rainbow Holograms
      3. Geometry of a Rainbow Hologram
      4. Slit Width
      5. A One-Dimensional Beam Expander
      6. Convergent Reference Beam
      7. Multichannel Rainbow Holograms
      8. What Went Wrong?
      9. Edge-Lit Holograms
      10. References
    8. Chapter 13 - Holograms Involving Focusing Optics
      1. Demagnifying and Magnifying
      2. Image Enlargement and Reduction
        1. Image Size Reduction
        2. Image Enlargement
        3. Local Magnification and Reduction
      3. Focused-Image Transmission Holograms
        1. Perspective in a Focused Image
      4. Lenses for Focused-Image Holograms
      5. Focused-Image Reflection Holograms
      6. Focused-Image Rainbow Holograms
        1. One-Step Rainbow Holograms Using an Optical Mirror
        2. Astigmatic One-Step Rainbow Holograms
      7. Fourier-Transform Holograms
      8. References
    9. Chapter 14 - Homemade Optical Elements
      1. Liquid-Filled Lenses
      2. Working with Acrylic Sheet
      3. One-Dimensional Collimators
      4. What to Do in Case of Leaks
      5. Other Sizes and Focal Lengths
      6. Calculations for Designing a Liquid-Filled Lens
      7. Two-Dimensional Collimating Lenses
      8. Measurements for a Collimating Lens
      9. Focusing Lenses
      10. Holographic Optical Elements
      11. Focal Length in Holographic Lenses and Mirrors
      12. Holographic Diffraction Gratings
      13. Holographic Lenses
      14. Holographic Mirrors and Beamsplitters
      15. Holographic Collimating Mirrors
      16. Aberrations of HOEs
      17. Multibeam HOEs
      18. References
    10. Chapter 15 - Portraiture and Pulse Laser Holography
      1. Safety Considerations for Pulse Lasers
      2. Working with a Pulse Laser
        1. Electrical Power
        2. Room Temperature and Humidity
        3. Cooling the Rods
        4. Cleaning Optics
        5. Changing the Flash Lamp
      3. Optical Components for Pulsed Holography
      4. Typical Layout of Pulse Holography Studio
      5. Portraiture in a Pulse Studio
      6. Creative Lighting for Pulse Portraiture
      7. Pulse Laser Exposure
      8. Double and Multiple Pulses
      9. Other Pulse Subject Matter
      10. Processing of Pulse Laser Holograms
    11. Chapter 16 - Holography in Natural Colors
      1. Eye and Color Perception
      2. CIE Chromaticity Diagram
      3. Color Transmission Holograms
      4. Denisyuk Holograms in Color
      5. Transfer Hologram Copies in Color
      6. Color Accuracy
      7. Portraiture in Color
      8. Color Reproduction in Digitally Printed Holograms
      9. Preserving the Color in Color Holograms
      10. Future of Color Holography
      11. References
      12. Further Reading
    12. Chapter 17 - Achromatic and Pseudocolor Holograms
      1. Achromatic White-Light Transmission Transfer Holograms
      2. Dispersion Compensation
      3. Color Image from Dispersion-Compensated WLT Holograms
      4. Achromatic Angle for Transmission Masters
      5. Achromatic Reflection Holograms
      6. Pseudocolor Holograms
      7. Pseudocolor Single-Beam Reflection Holograms
      8. Pseudocolor H1–H2 Transfer Reflection Holograms
      9. Color Registration by Preswelling
      10. Color Registration by Geometry
      11. How to Obtain Precise Registration by Geometry
      12. Pseudocolor White-Light Transmission Holograms
      13. Obtaining Better Color Registration for WLT Hologram
      14. One-Step Pseudocolor WLT Holograms
      15. References
    13. Chapter 18 - Holographic Stereograms
      1. Multiplexing Principle
        1. Photographic Stereograms
        2. Holographic Stereograms
      2. Making a Multiplexed Hologram
      3. Cylindrical (Cross) Stereograms
      4. Making a Cylindrical Cross Stereogram
        1. Improving the Image
      5. Conical Stereograms
      6. Flat Image-Plane Stereograms
      7. Scope of Modern Stereographic Imagery
      8. Geometries for Producing Original Image Sequences
      9. Perspective and Distortion
      10. Wide-angle Distortion
      11. Alignment and Spacing of the Images
      12. Long-Base Stereograms
      13. Image Registration
      14. Computer Control of Imagery
      15. Making the Final Transfer
      16. Do-It-Yourself Stereographic Holoprinter: Basic Considerations
        1. Setup for 35 mm Transparency Originals
        2. Slit
      17. Stereogram Masters from Film Transparency Sets or Digitally Projected Images
        1. Film Transparencies
        2. Digitally Projected Images
        3. Exposure
      18. Stereogram Masters from Photographic Prints
      19. Images from Liquid Crystal Display Screen as Objects for Stereogram Masters
      20. Mastering and Transferring for Achromatic Stereograms
      21. Full-Color Stereograms
      22. Mastering for Full-Color Stereograms (Red Laser)
        1. Master for a Full-Color WLT Stereogram
        2. Master for a Full-Color Reflection Stereogram
      23. Transfer for Full-Color Stereograms
        1. WLT Stereogram
        2. Reflection Color Stereogram
      24. Color Balance
      25. Color Accuracy: WLT or Reflection?
      26. Calculating Distances
      27. Preventing Dropouts
      28. Computer Image Processing
      29. Volume Multiplexed Holograms
      30. References
    14. Chapter 19 - Digital Holographic Printing
      1. Direct Writing of Holographic Fringes
      2. Principles of Digital Hologram Printing
      3. Master-Write Digital Holographic Printing
      4. Direct Master-Write Digital Holographic Printing
      5. Direct-Write Digital Holographic Printing
      6. Pixel Swapping
      7. Digital Holographic Printer
      8. Virtual 3D Scene Imaging for Holographic Printing
      9. Real Scene Imaging for Holographic Printing
      10. Other Applications
      11. References
    15. Chapter 20 - Display Techniques
      1. Basic Types of Hologram and Their Display
      2. Displaying Holograms at Home
        1. Reflection Holograms
        2. White-Light Transmission Holograms
      3. Window Displays
      4. Displays to Accompany Lectures and Presentations
      5. Submitting Your Holograms for Exhibitions
      6. Packing Your Hologram for Forwarding to an Exhibition
      7. Organizing an Exhibition of Holograms
      8. Lighting Arrangements
      9. Light Sources
      10. Installing the Exhibits
      11. Floor Plan
      12. Relevant Information
      13. Environment
      14. Photography of Holograms
        1. Equipment
          1. Photographing Reflection Holograms
          2. Photographing Transmission Holograms
          3. Photographing Unusual Holograms
      15. Presenting Holograms on the Internet
      16. Viewpoint and Parallax
      17. Precautions at Exhibitions
      18. Using Flash at the Exhibitions
      19. Copyright
      20. References
    16. Chapter 21 - Embossed Holograms
      1. Origination
      2. Requirements for Surface Relief Originals
        1. Light-Sensitive Medium
        2. Laser
        3. Processing
      3. Artwork for Analog Originals
        1. Three-Dimensional Objects
        2. Stereograms
        3. Flat Artwork
      4. Analog Origination
      5. Artwork for Digital Originals
      6. Dot Matrix
      7. Image Matrix Machinery
      8. E-Beam Lithography
      9. Digital Mastering with Analog Transfer
      10. DWDH Originals
      11. Combined Techniques
      12. Depositing the Conductive Layer on the Master
        1. Vacuum Deposition
        2. Silver Spraying
        3. Electroless Nickel Deposition
      13. First-Generation Master
      14. Electroforming of Final Shims
      15. Embossing Process
      16. Further Reading
      17. References
  10. Section III - Applied Holography
    1. Chapter 22 - Holography and Measurement
      1. Direct Measurements Using Holography
      2. Principle of Holographic Interferometry
      3. Real-Time Interferometry
      4. Double-Exposure Interferometry
      5. Time-Average Interferometry
      6. Strobed Interferometry
      7. Visualization of Fluid Flows
      8. Doubled Illuminating Beams
      9. Camera for Holographic Interferometry
      10. Sandwich Holography
      11. Reference Mirror Rotation
      12. Fringe Measurement
      13. Speckle Interferometry
      14. Holographic Contouring
      15. Summary of Applications
      16. Further Reading
      17. References
    2. Chapter 23 - Data Storage and Diffractive Elements
      1. Why Holographic Data Storage?
      2. Data Processing
      3. Spatial Filtering with Fourier-Transform Holograms
      4. Fourier-Transform Holograms: The Principles
      5. Image Deblurring
      6. Correlation Filtering
      7. Computer-Generated Holograms
      8. Applications of Fourier-Transform CGHs
      9. Strategies for Making CGHs
      10. CGHs with a Personal Computer
      11. Diffractive Optical Elements
      12. Basic Types of DOE
      13. Fabrication of DOEs
      14. Applications of DOEs
      15. Further Reading
      16. References
    3. Chapter 24 - Holography in Biology and Medicine
      1. Dental Holography
      2. Histology and Pathology
      3. Ophthalmic Holography
      4. Multiplexed Holograms
      5. Holograms and Diagnostics
      6. References
    4. Chapter 25 - Holographic Motion Pictures and Video
      1. Making the 3D Image Move
      2. Holographic Movies
      3. Electroholography: Holographic Video and Television
      4. Two Approaches to Holographic Video
      5. Three-Dimensional Scene Acquisition with Four-Wave Mixing
      6. Three-Dimensional Scene Acquisition with Integral Imaging
      7. Acquired 3D Scene Processing for Wavefront-Based Displays
      8. HoloDis: Display with Subwavelength Light Modulators
      9. MIT Scophony Displays
      10. NICT Display System
      11. SeeReal Display
      12. QinetiQ Display
      13. University of Arizona Photorefractive Polymer Display
      14. Zebra Imaging Holographic Motion Displays
      15. Zoetrope and Holographic Projections
      16. References
    5. Chapter 26 - Other Applications of Holography
      1. Far-Field Holography
      2. Holomicrography
      3. Microwave Holography
      4. Infrared Holography
      5. Terahertz Holography
      6. Ultraviolet Holography
      7. X-Ray Holography
      8. Electron Holography
      9. Acoustic Holography
      10. Light-in-Flight Holography
      11. Polarization Holography
      12. Conoscopic Holography
      13. Pseudodeep Holograms
      14. Surface-Plasmon Holography
      15. Conclusion
      16. References
  11. Appendix A: Mathematical Background to Holography
    1. Formation of a Hologram
    2. Reconstruction of the Image
    3. Traveling and Standing Waves
    4. Bragg Diffraction
    5. Effects of Shrinkage During Processing
    6. Modulation and Contrast
  12. Appendix B: Fourier Approach to Image Formation
    1. Fourier Series
    2. Fourier Transform
    3. Reciprocal Relationship of x-Space and Frequency Space
    4. Fourier Convolution Theorem
    5. Two-Dimensional Objects
    6. Further Reading
  13. Appendix C: Geometries for Creative Holography
    1. Designing a Setup for a White-Light Transmission Hologram
    2. Worksheet for Multicolor WLT Holograms
    3. Multicolor Layouts Designed by Geometry
    4. Locating the Hinge Point and Illumination Axis
    5. Multicolor WLT Hologram Geometry
    6. Multicolor Reflection Hologram Geometry
    7. References
  14. Appendix D: Fringe Stabilization
    1. Error Detector
    2. Expanding the Fringes
    3. Comparator and Amplifier
    4. Transducer
  15. Appendix E: Processing Formulas
    1. Developers for Industrially Made Silver Halide Emulsions
      1. For Fine-Grain Photomaterials (Grain Size 40 nm)
      2. For Ultrafine Grain Photomaterials (Grain Size 8–10 nm)
    2. Developer for Transmission and Reflection Master Holograms
    3. Hardener and Developer for True-Color Holograms Shot with CW Laser
    4. Pyrochrome Process
    5. Image Color Control during Pyrochrome Process
    6. Rehalogenating Bleaches
    7. Haze Removal
    8. Oxidized Developing Agents as Bleaches
    9. Pre- and Postswelling
    10. Preparation of Red-Sensitive DCG Emulsion
    11. Making Your Own Holographic Emulsion
    12. Material Required
    13. Preparation of Plates
    14. Preparation of Sufficient Coating Solution for an 8 × 10 in. Plate
    15. Coating (Smaller Plates)
    16. Coating (8 × 10 in. and A4 Size Plates)
    17. Preparing the Silver Bromide Emulsion
    18. Final Sensitizing Step
    19. Electroplating Formulas
      1. Silver Spray
      2. Electroless Nickel
    20. References
  16. Appendix F: Nonholographic 3D Imaging Methods
    1. Stereoscopic Pairs
    2. Autostereoscopic Viewing
    3. Hologram as Autostereoscopic Projection Screens
    4. Printed Stereoscopic Images
    5. Parallax Stereograms
    6. Glassless 3D TV
    7. Full-Parallax Imagery
    8. Integral Imaging
    9. Volumetric 3D Displays
    10. Further Reading
    11. References
  17. Appendix G: Holography Timeline
  18. Glossary of Terms