Interdependence of critical infrastructures

Industrial systems are highly interconnected and mutually dependent in complex ways, both physically and through a host of information and communications technologies. This dependency often leads to the interplay of more than one organization or business entity.

In the case of critical infrastructure, this collaborative model is often referred to as a system of systems. The Industrial Internet and Industrie 4.0 further enhance this concept, as IIoT solutions typically involve multiple technologies, systems, and ecosystem collaborators. A failure in any one part of the system of systems can directly or indirectly cascade into other connected systems, thereby intensifying the consequences.

Consider ...

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