Whether you’re troubleshooting latency issues, identifying malfunctioning applications, or zeroing in on security threats in order to spot abnormal traffic, you must first understand normal traffic. In the next couple of chapters, you’ll learn how normal network traffic works at the packet level as we journey from the bottom of the OSI model all the way to the top. Each protocol section has at least one associated capture file, which you can download and work with directly.

In this chapter, we’ll specifically focus on the network layer protocols that are the workhorses of network communication: ARP, IPv4, IPv6, ICMP, and ...

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