13 Africa and the Middle East


Africa’s media development has been plagued by wars, economic and social problems (Hachten, 1993). And it is therefore one of the most difficult continents in which to practise global journalism. The winds of change that have been blowing through Africa since Macmillan made his famous speech have not, alas, brought much press freedom in their wake (Mandela, 1991). Journalists are still losing their lives, are intimidated or victimized by their governments. Others are jailed; their families threatened; their newspapers and magazines stopped from publishing.

The press in Africa goes back over a century. Countries such as Ghana, Nigeria and Kenya have had some of the best-developed press systems. In West Africa, ...

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