Image

8  Polar Coordinates

Chapter Contents

8.1    The Polar Coordinate System

8.2    Graphs of Polar Equations

8.3    Conic Sections in Polar Coordinates

8.4    Image Parametric Equations

Chapter 8 Review Exercises

8.1  The Polar Coordinate System

INTRODUCTION So far we have used the rectangular coordinate system to specify a point P in the plane. We can regard this system as a grid of horizontal and vertical lines. The coordinates (a, b) of a point P are determined by the intersection of two lines: one line x = a is perpendicular to the horizontal reference ...

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