© The Author(s), under exclusive license to APress Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2023
S. KampakisPredicting the Unknownhttps://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4842-9505-2_9

9. Causality: Understanding the “Why”

Stylianos Kampakis1  
London, UK

“Shallow men believe in luck or in circumstance. Strong men believe in cause and effect.”

―Ralph Waldo Emerson

Uncertainty appears in many forms. Most people associate the word “uncertainty” with the future, and rightly so. If we could predict what the stock market would look like tomorrow, we’d be overnight billionaires. If we can’t predict that tomorrow it will rain, we might get soaked. However, a key part of uncertainty is understanding how events are connected. This question shows up again and again in science, ...

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