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Principles of Digital Audio, Sixth Edition, 6th Edition

Book Description

The definitive guide to digital engineering--fully updated

Gain a thorough understanding of digital audio tools, techniques, and practices from this completely revised and expanded resource. Written by industry pioneer and Audio Engineering Society Fellow Ken C. Pohlmann, Principles of Digital Audio, Sixth Edition, describes the technologies behind today's audio equipment in a clear, practical style. Covering basic theory to the latest technological advancements, the book explains how to apply digital conversion, processing, compression, storage, streaming, and transmission concepts. New chapters on Blu-ray, speech coding, and low bit-rate coding are also included in this bestselling guide.

  • Learn about discrete time sampling, quantization, and signal processing
  • Examine details of CD, DVD, and Blu-ray players and discs
  • Encode and decode AAC, MP3, MP4, Dolby Digital, and other files
  • Prepare content for distribution via the Internet and digital radio and television
  • Learn the critical differences between music coding and speech coding
  • Design low bit-rate codecs to optimize memory capacity while preserving fidelity
  • Develop methodologies to evaluate the sound quality of music and speech files
  • Study audio transmission via HDMI, VoIP, Wi-Fi, and Bluetooth
  • Handle digital rights management, fingerprinting, and watermarking
  • Understand how one-bit conversion and high-order noise shaping work

Table of Contents

  1. Cover Page
  2. Principles of Digital Audio
  3. Copyright Page
  4. Dedication
  5. about
  6. Contents
  7. Preface
  8. 1 Sound and Numbers
    1. Physics of Sound
      1. Sound Pressure Level
      2. Harmonics
    2. Digital Basics
      1. Number Systems
      2. Binary Number System
    3. Binary Codes
      1. Weighted Binary Codes
      2. Unweighted Binary Codes
      3. Two’s Complement
    4. Boolean Algebra
    5. Analog versus Digital
  9. 2 Fundamentals of Digital Audio
    1. Discrete Time Sampling
    2. The Sampling Theorem
      1. Nyquist Frequency
    3. Aliasing
    4. Quantization
      1. Signal-to-Error Ratio
      2. Quantization Error
      3. Other Architectures
    5. Dither
      1. Types of Dither
    6. Summary
    7. Postscript
  10. 3 Digital Audio Recording
    1. Pulse-Code Modulation
    2. Dither Generator
    3. Input Lowpass Filter
    4. Sample-and-Hold Circuit
    5. Analog-to-Digital Converter
      1. Successive Approximation A/D Converter
      2. Oversampling A/D Converter
    6. Record Processing
    7. Channel Codes
      1. Simple Codes
      2. Group Codes
      3. Code Applications
  11. 4 Digital Audio Reproduction
    1. Reproduction Processing
    2. Digital-to-Analog Converter
      1. Weighted-Resistor Digital-to-Analog Converter
      2. R-2R Ladder Digital-to-Analog Converter
      3. Zero-Cross Distortion
      4. High-Bit D/A Conversion
    3. Output Sample-and-Hold Circuit
    4. Output Lowpass Filter
    5. Impulse Response
    6. Digital Filters
      1. FIR Oversampling Filter
    7. Noise Shaping
    8. Output Processing
    9. Alternate Coding Architectures
      1. Floating-Point Systems
      2. Block Floating-Point Systems
      3. Nonuniform Companding Systems
      4. m-Law and A-Law Companding
      5. Differential PCM Systems
      6. Predictive Differential Coding
      7. Delta Modulation
      8. Adaptive Delta Modulation
      9. Companded Predictive Delta Modulation
      10. Adaptive Differential Pulse-Code Modulation
    10. Timebase Correction
      1. Jitter
      2. Eye Pattern
      3. Interface Jitter and Sampling Jitter
      4. Jitter in Mechanical Storage Media
      5. Jitter in Data Transmission
      6. Jitter in Converters
  12. 5 Error Correction
    1. Sources of Errors
    2. Quantifying Errors
    3. Objectives of Error Correction
    4. Error Detection
      1. Single-Bit Parity
      2. ISBN
      3. Cyclic Redundancy Check Code
    5. Error-Correction Codes
      1. Block Codes
      2. Hamming Codes
      3. Convolutional Codes
      4. Interleaving
      5. Cross-Interleaving
    6. Reed–Solomon Codes
    7. Cross-Interleave Reed–Solomon Code (CIRC)
      1. CIRC Performance Criteria
    8. Product Codes
    9. Error Concealment
      1. Interpolation
      2. Muting
      3. Duplication
  13. 6 Optical Disc Media
    1. Optical Phenomena
      1. Diffraction
      2. Resolution of Optical Systems
      3. Polarization
    2. Design of Optical Media
    3. Nonerasable Optical Media
      1. Read-Only Optical Storage
      2. Write-Once Optical Recording
    4. Erasable Optical Media
      1. Magneto-Optical Recording
      2. Phase-Change Optical Recording
      3. Dye-Polymer Erasable Optical Recording
    5. Digital Audio for Theatrical Film
  14. 7 Compact Disc
    1. Development
    2. Overview
    3. Disc Design
      1. Disc Optical Specification
      2. Data Encoding
    4. Player Optical Design
      1. Optical Pickup
      2. Autofocus Design
      3. Autotracking Design
      4. One-Beam Pickup
      5. Pickup Control
    5. Player Electrical Design
      1. EFM Demodulation
      2. Error Detection and Correction
      3. Output Processing
    6. Subcode
    7. Disc Manufacturing
      1. Premastering
      2. Disc Mastering
      3. Electroforming
      4. Disc Replication
    8. Alternative CD Formats
      1. CD-ROM
      2. CD-R
      3. CD-RW
      4. CD-MO
      5. CD-i
      6. Photo CD
      7. CD + G and CD + MIDI
      8. CD-3
      9. Video CD
    9. Super Audio CD
      1. Disc Design
      2. DSD Modulation
      3. DST Lossless Coding
      4. Player Design
  15. 8 DVD
    1. Development and Overview
    2. Disc Design
      1. Disc Optical Specification
      2. Disc Manufacturing and Playback
      3. Optical Playback
    3. Data Coding
      1. Reed–Solomon Product Code
      2. EFMPlus Modulation
    4. Universal Disc Format (UDF) Bridge
    5. DVD-Video
    6. DVD-Video Video Coding
      1. DVD-Video Audio Coding
      2. DVD-Video Playback Features
      3. DVD-Video Authoring
      4. DVD-Video Developer’s Summary
    7. DVD-Audio
      1. DVD-Audio Coding and Channel Options
      2. DVD-Audio Disc Contents
      3. DVD-Audio Developer’s Summary
    8. Alternative DVD Formats
      1. DVD-ROM
      2. DVD-R and DVD + R
      3. DVD-RW and DVD + RW
      4. DVD-RAM
    9. DVD Content Protection
      1. DVD-Video Copy Protection
      2. DVD-Audio Copy Protection
      3. Content Protection for Recordable Media
      4. Secure Digital Transmission
      5. DVD Watermarking
    10. HD DVD
  16. 9 Blu-ray
    1. Development and Overview
    2. Disc Capacity
    3. BD-ROM Player Profiles
    4. Disc Design
      1. Disc Optical Specification
    5. Optical Pickup Design
    6. Disc Manufacturing
    7. BD-ROM Specifications
    8. Audio Codecs
    9. Video Codecs
    10. Modulation and Error Correction
    11. Audio-Video Stream Format and Directory
    12. Blu-ray UDF File System
    13. HDMV and BD-J Application Programming Modes
    14. Blu-ray 3D
    15. Region Playback Code
    16. Content Protection
    17. Blu-ray Recordable Formats
      1. AVCHD Format
  17. 10 Low Bit-Rate Coding: Theory and Evaluation
    1. Perceptual Coding
    2. Psychoacoustics
    3. Physiology of the Human Ear and Critical Bands
    4. Threshold of Hearing and Masking
      1. Temporal Masking
    5. Psychoacoustic Models
      1. Spreading Function
      2. Tonality
    6. Rationale for Perceptual Coding
    7. Perceptual Coding in Time and Frequency
      1. Subband Coding
      2. Transform Coding
    8. Filter Banks
      1. Quadrature Mirror Filters
      2. Hybrid Filters
      3. Polyphase Filters
      4. MDCT
    9. Multichannel Coding
    10. Tandem Codecs
    11. Spectral Band Replication
    12. Perceptual Coding Performance Evaluation
      1. Critical Listening
      2. Listening Test Methodologies and Standards
      3. Listening Test Statistical Evaluation
    13. Lossless Data Compression
      1. Entropy Coding
      2. Audio Data Compression
  18. 11 Low Bit-Rate Coding: Codec Design
    1. Early Codecs
    2. MPEG-1 Audio Standard
      1. MPEG Bitstream Format
    3. MPEG-1 Layer I
      1. Example of MPEG-1 Layer I Implementation
    4. MPEG-1 Layer II
    5. MPEG-1 Layer III (MP3)
      1. MP3 Bit Allocation and Huffman Coding
      2. MP3 Stereo Coding
      3. MP3 Decoder Optimization
    6. MPEG-1 Psychoacoustic Model 1
    7. MPEG-1 Psychoacoustic Model 2
    8. MPEG-2 Audio Standard
    9. MPEG-2 AAC
      1. AAC Main Profile
      2. AAC Allocation Loops
      3. AAC Temporal Noise Shaping
      4. AAC Techniques and Performance
    10. ATRAC Codec
    11. Perceptual Audio Coding (PAC) Codec
    12. AC-3 (Dolby Digital) Codec
      1. AC-3 Overview
      2. AC-3 Theory of Operation
      3. AC-3 Exponent Strategies and Bit Allocation
      4. AC-3 Multichannel Coding
      5. AC-3 Bitstream and Decoder
      6. AC-3 Applications and Extensions
    13. DTS Codec
    14. Meridian Lossless Packing
  19. 12 Speech Coding for Transmission
    1. Speech Coding Criteria and Overview
    2. Waveform Coding and Source Coding
    3. Human Speech
    4. Source-Filter Model
    5. Channel, Formant, and Sinusoidal Codecs
    6. Predictive Speech Coding
    7. Linear Predictive Coding
    8. Code Excited Linear Prediction
      1. CELP Encoder and Decoder
      2. CELP Codebooks
      3. Vector Quantization
      4. Examples of CELP Codecs
    9. Scalable Speech Coding
      1. G.729.1 and MPEG-4 Scalable Codecs
    10. Bandwidth Extension
    11. Echo Cancellation
      1. Voice Activity Detection
    12. Variable Bit Rate
    13. Speech Recognition
    14. Speex Codec
    15. Quantifying Performance of Speech Codecs
    16. Speech Coding Standards
  20. 13 Audio Interconnection
    1. Audio Interfaces
    2. SDIF-2 Interconnection
    3. AES3 (AES/EBU) Professional Interface
      1. AES3 Frame Structure
      2. AES3 Channel Status Block
      3. AES3 Implementation
    4. AES10 (MADI) Multichannel Interface
    5. S/PDIF Consumer Interconnection
      1. Serial Copy Management System
    6. High-Definition Multimedia Interface (HDMI) and DisplayPort
    7. Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI)
    8. AES11 Digital Audio Reference Signal
    9. AES18 User Data Channels
    10. AES24 Control of Audio Devices
    11. Sample Rate Converters
    12. Fiber-Optic Cable Interconnection
      1. Fiber-Optic Cable
      2. Connection and Installation
      3. Design Example
  21. 14 Personal Computer Audio
    1. PC Buses and Interfaces
      1. IEEE 1394 (FireWire)
    2. Digital Transmission Content Protection (DTCP)
    3. Universal Serial Bus (USB)
    4. Sound Card and Motherboard Audio
      1. Music Synthesis
      2. Surround Sound Processing
      3. Audio Codec ’97 (AC ’97)
    5. High Definition Audio (HD Audio)
    6. Windows DirectX API
      1. MMX
    7. File Formats
      1. WAV and BWF
      2. MP3, AIFF, QuickTime, and Other File Formats
    8. Open Media Framework Interchange (OMFI)
    9. Advanced Authoring Format (AAF)
    10. Material eXchange Format (MXF)
    11. AES31
    12. Digital Audio Extraction
    13. Flash Memory
    14. Hard-Disk Drives
      1. Magnetic Recording
      2. Hard-Disk Design
    15. Digital Audio Workstations
      1. Audio Software Applications
      2. Professional Applications
      3. Audio for Video Workstations
  22. 15 Telecommunications and Internet Audio
    1. Telephone Services
      1. ISDN
      2. Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL)
    2. Cellular Telecommunications
    3. Networks and File Transfers
      1. Ethernet
      2. Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)
      3. Bluetooth
      4. IEEE 802.11 Wireless LAN (Wi-Fi)
      5. MediaNet
    4. Internet Audio
      1. Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP)
      2. Digital Rights Management
      3. Audio Encryption
      4. Audio Watermarking
      5. Audio Fingerprinting
    5. Streaming Audio
      1. G2 Music Codec for Streaming
      2. Audio Webcasting
    6. MPEG-4 Audio Standard
      1. MPEG-4 Interactivity
      2. MPEG-4 Audio Coding
      3. MPEG-4 Versions
      4. MPEG-4 Coding Tools
    7. MPEG-7 Standard
  23. 16 Digital Radio and Television Broadcasting
    1. Satellite Communication
      1. Direct Broadcast Satellites
    2. Digital Audio Radio
      1. Digital Audio Transmission
      2. Spectral Space
      3. Data Reduction
      4. Technical Considerations
    3. Eureka 147 Wideband Digital Radio
    4. In-Band Digital Radio
    5. HD Radio
      1. HD Radio FM-IBOC
      2. HD Radio AM-IBOC
    6. Direct Satellite Radio
      1. Sirius XM Radio
    7. Digital Television (DTV)
      1. DTV and ATSC Overview
    8. Video Data Reduction
    9. MPEG-1 and MPEG-2 Video Coding
      1. MPEG-1 Video Standard
      2. MPEG-2 Video Standard
    10. ATSC Digital Television
      1. ATSC Display Formats and Specification
      2. DTV Implementation
  24. 17 Digital Signal Processing
    1. Fundamentals of Digital Signal Processing
      1. DSP Applications
    2. Discrete Systems
      1. Linearity and Time-Invariance
      2. Impulse Response and Convolution
      3. Complex Numbers
    3. Mathematical Transforms
    4. Unit Circle and Region of Convergence
      1. Poles and Zeros
      2. DSP Elements
    5. Digital Filters
      1. FIR Filters
      2. IIR Filters
      3. Filter Applications
    6. Sources of Errors and Digital Dither
    7. DSP Integrated Circuits
      1. Processor Architecture
      2. Fixed Point and Floating Point
    8. DSP Programming
      1. Filter Programming
      2. Texas Instruments Code
      3. Motorola Code
      4. Analog Devices SHARC Code
    9. Specialized DSP Applications
      1. Digital Delay Effects
      2. Digital Reverberation
      3. Digital Mixing Consoles
      4. Loudspeaker Correction
      5. Noise Removal
  25. 18 Sigma-Delta Conversion and Noise Shaping
    1. Sigma-Delta Conversion
      1. Delta Modulation
      2. Sigma-Delta Modulation
      3. Analysis of a First-Order Sigma-Delta Modulator
      4. Higher-Order Noise Shaping
    2. Idle Tones and Limit Cycles
    3. One-Bit D/A Conversion with Second-Order Noise Shaping
    4. Multi-Bit D/A Conversion with Third-Order Noise Shaping
    5. Multi-Bit D/A Conversion with Quasi Fourth-Order Noise Shaping
    6. Sigma-Delta A/D Conversion
      1. Digital Filtering and Decimation
    7. Sigma-Delta A/D Converter Chip
    8. Sigma-Delta D/A Converter Chip
    9. Sigma-Delta A/D–D/A Converter Chip
    10. Noise Shaping of Nonoversampling Quantization Error
      1. Psychoacoustically Optimized Noise Shaping
      2. Buried Data Technique
  26. Appendix The Sampling Theorem
  27. Bibliography
  28. Index