Principles of Marketing, 17/e

Book Description

Help readers learn how to create value through customer connections and engagement

In a fast-changing, increasingly digital and social marketplace, it—s more vital than ever for marketers to develop meaningful connections with their customers. Principles of Marketing helps readers master today—s key marketing challenge: to create vibrant, interactive communities of consumers who make products and brands an integral part of their daily lives. To help individuals understand how to create value and build customer relationships, Kotler and Armstrong present fundamental marketing information within an innovative customer-value framework.

Thoroughly revised to reflect the major trends impacting contemporary marketing, the 17th Edition is packed with stories illustrating how companies use new digital technologies to maximize customer engagement and shape brand conversations, experiences, and communities.

Table of Contents

  1. Engage, Assess, Apply with MyMarketingLab®
  2. Principles of Marketing
  3. Principles of Marketing
  4. Dedication
  5. About the Authors
  6. Brief Contents
  7. Contents
  8. Preface
    1. The Seventeenth Edition of Kotler/Armstrong’s Principles of Marketing! Setting the World Standard in Marketing Education
    2. Marketing: Creating Customer Value and Engagement in the Digital and Social Age
    3. What’s New in the Seventeenth Edition?
    4. Five Major Customer Value and Engagement Themes
    5. An Emphasis on Real Marketing and Bringing Marketing to Life
    6. Learning Aids That Create Value and Engagement
    7. A Total Teaching and Learning Package
  9. Reviewers
  10. Principles of Marketing
  11. Part 1: Defining Marketing and the Marketing Process (Chapters 1––2)
    1. 1 Marketing Creating Customer Value and Engagement
      1. Chapter Preview
      2. Objectives Outline
      3. What Is Marketing?
        1. Marketing Defined
        2. The Marketing Process
      4. Understanding the Marketplace and Customer Needs
        1. Customer Needs, Wants, and Demands
        2. Market Offerings—Products, Services, and Experiences
        3. Customer Value and Satisfaction
        4. Exchanges and Relationships
        5. Markets
      5. Designing a Customer Value–Driven Marketing Strategy and Plan
        1. Customer Value–Driven Marketing Strategy
          1. Selecting Customers to Serve
          2. Choosing a Value Proposition
          3. Marketing Management Orientations
            1. The Production Concept
            2. The Product Concept
            3. The Selling Concept
            4. The Marketing Concept
            5. The Societal Marketing Concept
        2. Preparing an Integrated Marketing Plan and Program
      6. Managing Customer Relationships and Capturing Customer Value
        1. Engaging Customers and Managing Customer Relationships
          1. Customer Relationship Management
            1. Relationship Building Blocks: Customer Value and Satisfaction
            2. Customer Relationship Levels and Tools
          2. Customer Engagement and Today’s Digital and Social Media
          3. Consumer-Generated Marketing
          4. Partner Relationship Management
        2. Capturing Value from Customers
          1. Creating Customer Loyalty and Retention
          2. Growing Share of Customer
          3. Building Customer Equity
            1. What Is Customer Equity?
            2. Building the Right Relationships with the Right Customers
      7. The Changing Marketing Landscape
        1. The Digital Age: Online, Mobile, and Social Media Marketing
          1. Social Media Marketing
          2. Mobile Marketing
        2. The Changing Economic Environment
        3. The Growth of Not-for-Profit Marketing
        4. Rapid Globalization
        5. Sustainable Marketing—The Call for More Environmental and Social Responsibility
        6. So, What Is Marketing? Pulling It All Together
      8. 1 Reviewing and Extending the Concepts
        1. Objectives Review and Key Terms
          1. Objectives Review
            1. Objective 1-1 Define marketing and outline the steps in the marketing process. Define marketing and outline the steps in the marketing process. (pp 4–6)
            2. Objective 1-2 Explain the importance of understanding the marketplace and customers and identify the five core marketplace concepts. (pp 6–10)
            3. Objective 1-3 Identify the key elements of a customer value–driven marketing strategy and discuss the marketing management orientations that guide marketing strategy. Identify the key elements of a customer value–driven marketing strategy and discuss the marketing management orientations that guide marketing strategy. (pp 10–14)
            4. Objective 1-4 Discuss customer relationship management and identify strategies for creating value for customers and capturing value from customers in return. (pp 14–22)
            5. Objective 1-5 Describe the major trends and forces that are changing the marketing landscape in this age of relationships. (pp 22–31)
          2. Key Terms
            1. Objective 1-1
            2. Objective 1-2
            3. Objective 1-3
            4. Objective 1-4
            5. Objective 1-5
        2. Discussion and Critical Thinking
          1. Discussion Questions
          2. Critical Thinking Exercises
        3. Applications and Cases
          1. Online, Mobile, and Social Media Marketing The ALS Ice Bucket Challenge
          2. Marketing Ethics Is Big Brother Watching?
          3. Marketing by the Numbers What’s a Customer Worth?
          4. Video Case Eskimo Joe’s
          5. Company Case Chick-Fil-A: Getting Better before Getting Bigger
            1. Applying Some Pressure
            2. Getting It Right
            3. Give Them Something to Do
              1. Questions for Discussion
    2. 2 Company and Marketing Strategy Partnering to Build Customer Engagement, Value, and Relationships
      1. Chapter Preview
      2. Objectives Outline
      3. Company-Wide Strategic Planning: Defining Marketing’s Role
        1. Defining a Market-Oriented Mission
        2. Setting Company Objectives and Goals
      4. Designing the Business Portfolio
        1. Analyzing the Current Business Portfolio
        2. The Boston Consulting Group Approach
          1. Problems with Matrix Approaches
        3. Developing Strategies for Growth and Downsizing
      5. Planning Marketing: Partnering to Build Customer Relationships
        1. Partnering with Other Company Departments
        2. Partnering with Others in the Marketing System
      6. Marketing Strategy and the Marketing Mix
        1. Customer Value–Driven Marketing Strategy
          1. Market Segmentation
          2. Market Targeting
          3. Market Differentiation and Positioning
        2. Developing an Integrated Marketing Mix
      7. Managing the Marketing Effort and Marketing Return on Investment
        1. Managing the Marketing Effort
          1. Marketing Analysis
          2. Marketing Planning
          3. Marketing Implementation
          4. Marketing Department Organization
          5. Marketing Control
        2. Measuring and Managing Marketing Return on Investment
      8. 2 Reviewing and Extending the Concepts
        1. Objectives Review and Key Terms
          1. Objectives Review
            1. Objective 2-1 Explain company-wide strategic planning and its four steps. Explain company-wide strategic planning and its four steps. (pp 40–42)
            2. Objective 2-2 Discuss how to design business portfolios and develop growth strategies. Discuss how to design business portfolios and develop growth strategies. (pp 42–48)
            3. Objective 2-3 Explain marketing’s role in strategic planning and how marketing works with its partners to create and deliver customer value. Explain marketing’s role in strategic planning and how marketing works with its partners to create and deliver customer value. (pp 48–49)
            4. Objective 2-4 Describe the elements of a customer value–driven marketing strategy and mix and the forces that influence them. Describe the elements of a customer value–driven marketing strategy and mix and the forces that influence them. (pp 50–55)
            5. Objective 2-5 List the marketing management functions, including the elements of a marketing plan, and discuss the importance of measuring and managing marketing return on investment. List the marketing management functions, including the elements of a marketing plan, and discuss the importance of measuring and managing marketing return on investment. (pp 55–60)
          2. Key Terms
            1. Objective 2-1
            2. Objective 2-2
            3. Objective 2-3
            4. Objective 2-4
            5. Objective 2-5
        2. Discussion and Critical Thinking
          1. Discussion Questions
          2. Critical Thinking Exercises
        3. Applications and Cases
          1. Online, Mobile, and Social Media Marketing Google’s (Alphabet’s) Mission
          2. Marketing Ethics Creating Value or Distracting Consumers?
          3. Marketing by the Numbers Apple vs. Microsoft
          4. Video Case Konica
          5. Company Case Facebook: Making the World More Open and Connected
            1. From Simple Things
            2. To the Stratosphere
            3. Giving It All Away
              1. Questions for Discussion
  12. Part 2: Understanding the Marketplace and Consumer Value (Chapters 3––6)
    1. 3 Analyzing the Marketing Environment
      1. Chapter Preview
      2. Objectives Outline
      3. The Microenvironment and Macroenvironment
        1. The Microenvironment
          1. The Company
          2. Suppliers
          3. Marketing Intermediaries
          4. Competitors
          5. Publics
          6. Customers
        2. The Macroenvironment
      4. The Demographic and Economic Environments
        1. The Demographic Environment
          1. The Changing Age Structure of the Population
            1. The Baby Boomers
            2. Generation X
            3. Millennials
            4. Generation Z
            5. Generational Marketing
          2. The Changing American Family
          3. Geographic Shifts in Population
          4. A Better-Educated, More White-Collar, More Professional Population
          5. Increasing Diversity
        2. The Economic Environment
      5. The Natural and Technological Environments
        1. The Natural Environment
        2. The Technological Environment
      6. The Political–Social and Cultural Environments
        1. The Political and Social Environment
          1. Legislation Regulating Business
          2. Increased Emphasis on Ethics and Socially Responsible Actions
            1. Socially Responsible Behavior
            2. Cause-Related Marketing
        2. The Cultural Environment
          1. The Persistence of Cultural Values
          2. Shifts in Secondary Cultural Values
            1. People’s Views of Themselves
            2. People’s Views of Others
            3. People’s Views of Organizations
            4. People’s Views of Society
            5. People’s Views of Nature
            6. People’s Views of the Universe
      7. Responding to the Marketing Environment
      8. 3 Reviewing and Extending the Concepts
        1. Objectives Review and Key Terms
          1. Objectives Review
            1. Objective 3-1 Describe the environmental forces that affect the company’s ability to serve its customers. Describe the environmental forces that affect the company’s ability to serve its customers. (pp 68–72)
            2. Objective 3-2 Explain how changes in the demographic and economic environments affect marketing decisions. (pp 72–80)
            3. Objective 3-3 Identify the major trends in the firm’s natural and technological environments. Identify the major trends in the firm’s natural and technological environments. (pp 80–84)
            4. Objective 3-4 Explain the key changes in the political and cultural environments. (pp 84–90)
            5. Objective 3-5 Discuss how companies can react to the marketing environment. (pp 90–92)
          2. Key Terms
            1. Objective 3-1
            2. Objective 3-2
            3. Objective 3-3
            4. Objective 3-4
        2. Discussion and Critical Thinking
          1. Discussion Questions
          2. Critical Thinking Exercises
        3. Applications and Cases
          1. Online, Mobile, and Social Media Marketing Sharing Economy
          2. Marketing Ethics How Young Is Too Young?
          3. Marketing by the Numbers Demographic Trends
          4. Video Case Burger King
          5. Company Case Fitbit: Riding the Fitness Wave to Glory
            1. A Magical Device
            2. An Unexpected Opportunity
            3. Encountering Hurdles
              1. Questions for Discussion
    2. 4 Managing Marketing Information to Gain Customer Insights
      1. Chapter Preview
      2. Objectives Outline
      3. Marketing Information and Customer Insights
        1. Marketing Information and Today’s “Big Data”
        2. Managing Marketing Information
      4. Assessing Information Needs and Developing Data
        1. Assessing Marketing Information Needs
        2. Developing Marketing Information
          1. Internal Data
          2. Competitive Marketing Intelligence
      5. Marketing Research
        1. Defining the Problem and Research Objectives
        2. Developing the Research Plan
        3. Gathering Secondary Data
        4. Primary Data Collection
          1. Research Approaches
            1. Observational Research
            2. Survey Research
            3. Experimental Research
          2. Contact Methods
            1. Mail, Telephone, and Personal Interviewing
            2. Focus Group Interviewing
            3. Online Marketing Research
            4. Online Behavioral and Social Tracking and Targeting
          3. Sampling Plan
          4. Research Instruments
            1. Questionnaires
            2. Mechanical Instruments
        5. Implementing the Research Plan
        6. Interpreting and Reporting the Findings
      6. Analyzing and Using Marketing Information
        1. Customer Relationship Management (CRM)
        2. Big Data and Marketing Analytics
        3. Distributing and Using Marketing Information
      7. Other Marketing Information Considerations
        1. Marketing Research in Small Businesses and Nonprofit Organizations
        2. International Marketing Research
        3. Public Policy and Ethics in Marketing Research
          1. Intrusions on Consumer Privacy
          2. Misuse of Research Findings
      8. 4 Reviewing and Extending the Concepts
        1. Objectives Review and Key Terms
          1. Objectives Review
            1. Objective 4-1 Explain the importance of information in gaining insights about the marketplace and customers. (pp 100–102)
            2. Objective 4-2 Define the marketing information system and discuss its parts. (pp 102–106)
            3. Objective 4-3 Outline the steps in the marketing research process. (pp 106–116)
            4. Objective 4-4 Explain how companies analyze and use marketing information. (pp 116–120)
            5. Objective 4-5 Discuss the special issues some marketing researchers face, including public policy and ethics issues. (pp 120–125)
          2. Key Terms
            1. Objective 4-1
            2. Objective 4-2
            3. Objective 4-3
            4. Objective 4-4
        2. Discussion and Critical Thinking
          1. Discussion Questions
          2. Critical Thinking Exercises
        3. Applications and Cases
          1. Online, Mobile, and Social Media Marketing The Trail You Leave Behind
          2. Marketing Ethics Metadata
          3. Marketing by the Numbers The Value of Information
          4. Video Case Nielsen
          5. Company Case Campbell Soup Company: Watching What You Eat
            1. Reading Consumers’ Minds
            2. Diving Deeper for Insights
              1. Questions for Discussion
    3. 5 Consumer Markets and Buyer BehaviorConsumer Markets and Buyer Behavior
      1. Chapter Preview
      2. Objectives Outline
      3. Model of Consumer Behavior
      4. Characteristics Affecting Consumer Behavior
        1. Cultural Factors
          1. Culture
          2. Subculture
            1. Hispanic American Consumers
            2. African American Consumers
            3. Asian American Consumers
            4. A Total Marketing Strategy
          3. Social Class
        2. Social Factors
          1. Groups and Social Networks
          2. Family
          3. Roles and Status
        3. Personal Factors
          1. Occupation
          2. Age and Life Stage
          3. Economic Situation
          4. Lifestyle
          5. Personality and Self-Concept
        4. Psychological Factors
          1. Motivation
          2. Perception
          3. Learning
          4. Beliefs and Attitudes
      5. Buying Decision Behavior and the Buyer Decision Process
        1. Types of Buying Decision Behavior
          1. Complex Buying Behavior
          2. Dissonance-Reducing Buying Behavior
          3. Habitual Buying Behavior
          4. Variety-Seeking Buying Behavior
        2. The Buyer Decision Process
          1. Need Recognition
          2. Information Search
          3. Evaluation of Alternatives
          4. Purchase Decision
          5. Postpurchase Behavior
      6. The Buyer Decision Process for New Products
        1. Stages in the Adoption Process
        2. Individual Differences in Innovativeness
        3. Influence of Product Characteristics on Rate of Adoption
      7. 5 Reviewing and Extending the Concepts Reviewing and Extending the Concepts
        1. Objectives Review and Key Terms
          1. Objectives Review
            1. Objective 5-1 Define the consumer market and construct a simple model of consumer buyer behavior. Define the consumer market and construct a simple model of consumer buyer behavior. (pp 134–135)
            2. Objective 5-2 Name the four major factors that influence consumer buyer behavior. Name the four major factors that influence consumer buyer behavior. (pp 135–149)
            3. Objective 5-3 List and define the major types of buying decision behavior and the stages in the buyer decision process. List and define the major types of buying decision behavior and the stages in the buyer decision process. (pp 150–154)
            4. Objective 5-4 Describe the adoption and diffusion process for new products. Describe the adoption and diffusion process for new products. (pp 154–156)
          2. Key Terms
            1. Objective 5-1
            2. Objective 5-2
            3. Objective 5-3
            4. Objective 5-4
        2. Discussion and Critical Thinking
          1. Discussion Questions
          2. Critical Thinking Exercises
        3. Applications and Cases
          1. Online, Mobile, and Social Media Marketing Digital Influencer Credibility
          2. Marketing Ethics Ultimate Water
          3. Marketing by the Numbers Evaluating Alternatives
          4. Video Case IMG Worldwide
          5. Company Case GoldieBlox: Swimming Upstream against Consumer Perceptions
            1. A Different Kind of Toy Company
            2. All That Glitters Is Not Goldie
              1. Questions for Discussion
    4. 6 Business Markets and Business Buyer Behavior
      1. Chapter Preview
      2. Objectives Outline
      3. Business Markets
        1. Market Structure and Demand
        2. Nature of the Buying Unit
        3. Types of Decisions and the Decision Process
      4. Business Buyer Behavior
        1. Major Types of Buying Situations
        2. Participants in the Business Buying Process
        3. Major Influences on Business Buyers
      5. The Business Buyer Decision Process
        1. Problem Recognition
        2. General Need Description
        3. Product Specification
        4. Supplier Search
        5. Proposal Solicitation
        6. Supplier Selection
        7. Order-Routine Specification
        8. Performance Review
      6. Engaging Business Buyers with Digital and Social Marketing
        1. E-procurement and Online Purchasing
        2. Business-to-Business Digital and Social Media Marketing
      7. Institutional and Government Markets
        1. Institutional Markets
        2. Government Markets
      8. 6 Reviewing and Extending the Concepts
        1. Objectives Review and Key Terms
          1. Objectives Review
            1. Objective 6-1 Define the business market and explain how business markets differ from consumer markets. Define the business market and explain how business markets differ from consumer markets. (pp 164–166)
            2. Objective 6-2 Identify the major factors that influence business buyer behavior. Identify the major factors that influence business buyer behavior. (pp 166–171)
            3. Objective 6-3 List and define the steps in the business buying decision process. List and define the steps in the business buying decision process. (pp 171–173)
            4. Objective 6-4 Discuss how new information technologies and online, mobile, and social media have changed business-to-business marketing. (pp 173–175)
            5. Objective 6-5 Compare the institutional and government markets and explain how institutional and government buyers make their buying decisions. (pp 175–179)
          2. Key Terms
            1. Objective 6-1
            2. Objective 6-2
            3. Objective 6-3
            4. Objective 6-4
            5. Objective 6-5
        2. Discussion and Critical Thinking
          1. Discussion Questions
          2. Critical Thinking Exercises
        3. Applications and Cases
          1. Online, Mobile, and Social Media Marketing E-procurement and Mobile Procurement
          2. Marketing Ethics What Are Our Kids Eating?
          3. Marketing by the Numbers NAICS
          4. Video Case Eaton
          5. Company Case Procter & Gamble: Treating Business Customers as Strategic Partners
            1. Developing the Customer’s Business
            2. A Competitive Edge
            3. It’s Better to Give…Then to Receive
              1. Questions for Discussion
  13. Part 3: Designing a Customer Value-Driven Strategy and Mix (Chapters 7––17)
    1. 7 Customer Value–Driven Marketing Strategy: Creating Value for Target CustomersCustomer Value–Driven Marketing Strategy: Creating Value for Target Customers
      1. Chapter Preview
      2. Objectives Outline
      3. Marketing Strategy
      4. Market Segmentation
        1. Segmenting Consumer Markets
          1. Geographic Segmentation
          2. Demographic Segmentation
            1. Age and Life-Cycle Stage
            2. Gender
            3. Income
          3. Psychographic Segmentation
          4. Behavioral Segmentation
            1. Occasions
            2. Benefits Sought
            3. User Status
            4. Usage Rate
            5. Loyalty Status
          5. Using Multiple Segmentation Bases
        2. Segmenting Business Markets
        3. Segmenting International Markets
        4. Requirements for Effective Segmentation
      5. Market Targeting
        1. Evaluating Market Segments
        2. Selecting Target Market Segments
          1. Undifferentiated Marketing
          2. Differentiated Marketing
          3. Concentrated Marketing
          4. Micromarketing
            1. Local Marketing
            2. Individual Marketing
          5. Choosing a Targeting Strategy
          6. Socially Responsible Target Marketing
      6. Differentiation and Positioning
        1. Positioning Maps
        2. Choosing a Differentiation and Positioning Strategy
          1. Identifying Possible Value Differences and Competitive Advantages
          2. Choosing the Right Competitive Advantages
            1. How Many Differences to Promote
            2. Which Differences to Promote
          3. Selecting an Overall Positioning Strategy
            1. More for More
            2. More for the Same
            3. The Same for Less
            4. Less for Much Less
            5. More for Less
          4. Developing a Positioning Statement
        3. Communicating and Delivering the Chosen Position
      7. 7 Reviewing and Extending the Concepts
        1. Objectives Review and Key Terms
          1. Objectives Review
            1. Objective 7-1 Define the major steps in designing a customer value–driven marketing strategy: market segmentation, targeting, differentiation, and positioning. Define the major steps in designing a customer value–driven marketing strategy: market segmentation, targeting, differentiation, and positioning. (pp 188–189)
            2. Objective 7-2 List and discuss the major bases for segmenting consumer and business markets. (pp 189–197)
            3. Objective 7-3 Explain how companies identify attractive market segments and choose a market-targeting strategy. (pp 197–204)
            4. Objective 7-4 Discuss how companies differentiate and position their products for maximum competitive advantage. (pp 204–212)
          2. Key Terms
            1. Objective 7-1
            2. Objective 7-2
            3. Objective 7-3
            4. Objective 7-4
          3. Discussion and Critical Thinking
            1. Discussion Questions
            2. Critical Thinking Exercises
          4. Applications and Cases
            1. Online, Mobile, and Social Media Marketing Get Your Groupon
            2. Marketing Ethics Targeting to Teens
            3. Marketing by the Numbers USAA
            4. Video Case Sprout
            5. Company Case Virgin America: Flight Service for the Tech Savvy
              1. Targeting the Right Customers
              2. Homing in on the Details
              3. Above the Clouds
                1. Questions for Discussion
    2. 8 Products, Services, and Brands Building Customer Value
      1. Previewing the Concepts
      2. Objectives Outline
      3. What Is a Product?
        1. Products, Services, and Experiences
        2. Levels of Product and Services
        3. Product and Service Classifications
          1. Consumer Products
          2. Industrial Products
          3. Organizations, Persons, Places, and Ideas
      4. Product and Service Decisions
        1. Individual Product and Service Decisions
          1. Product and Service Attributes
            1. Product Quality
            2. Product Features
            3. Product Style and Design
          2. Branding
          3. Packaging
          4. Labeling and Logos
          5. Product Support Services
        2. Product Line Decisions
        3. Product Mix Decisions
      5. Services Marketing
        1. The Nature and Characteristics of a Service
        2. Marketing Strategies for Service Firms
        3. The Service Profit Chain
          1. Managing Service Differentiation
          2. Managing Service Quality
          3. Managing Service Productivity
      6. Branding Strategy: Building Strong Brands
        1. Brand Equity and Brand Value
        2. Building Strong Brands
          1. Brand Positioning
          2. Brand Name Selection
          3. Brand Sponsorship
            1. National Brands versus Store Brands
            2. Licensing
            3. Co-branding
          4. Brand Development
            1. Line Extensions
            2. Brand Extensions
            3. Multibrands
            4. New Brands
        3. Managing Brands
      7. 8 Reviewing and Extending the Concepts
        1. Objectives Review and Key Terms
          1. Objectives Review
            1. Objective 8-1 Define product and describe the major classifications of products and services. (pp 220–225)
            2. Objective 8-2 Describe the decisions companies make regarding their individual products and services, product lines, and product mixes. (pp 225–233)
            3. Objective 8-3 Identify the four characteristics that affect the marketing of services and the additional marketing considerations that services require. (pp 234–240)
            4. Objective 8-4 Discuss branding strategy—the decisions companies make in building and managing their brands. Discuss branding strategy—the decisions companies make in building and managing their brands. (pp 240–248)
          2. Key Terms
            1. Objective 8-1
            2. Objective 8-2
            3. Objective 8-3
            4. Objective 8-4
        2. Discussion and Critical Thinking
          1. Discussion Questions
          2. Critical Thinking Exercises
        3. Applications and Cases
          1. Online, Mobile, and Social Media Marketing Feeding Pets from Your Smartphone
          2. Marketing Ethics Geographical Indication
          3. Marketing by the Numbers Pop-Tarts Gone Nutty!
          4. Video Case Plymouth Rock Assurance
          5. Company Case Airbnb: Making Hospitality Authentic
            1. Two Million Rooms—No Two Alike
            2. Seeing the World as the Locals Do
            3. Executing on the Promise
              1. Questions for Discussion
    3. 9 Developing New Products and Managing the Product Life Cycle
      1. Chapter Preview
      2. Objectives Outline
      3. New Product Development Strategy
      4. The New Product Development Process
        1. Idea Generation
          1. Internal Idea Sources
          2. External Idea Sources
          3. Crowdsourcing
        2. Idea Screening
        3. Concept Development and Testing
          1. Concept Development
          2. Concept Testing
        4. Marketing Strategy Development
        5. Business Analysis
        6. Product Development
        7. Test Marketing
        8. Commercialization
        9. Managing New Product Development
          1. Customer-Centered New Product Development
          2. Team-Based New Product Development
          3. Systematic New Product Development
      5. Product Life-Cycle Strategies
        1. Introduction Stage
        2. Growth Stage
        3. Maturity Stage
        4. Decline Stage
      6. Additional Product and Service Considerations
        1. Product Decisions and Social Responsibility
        2. International Product and Services Marketing
      7. 9 Reviewing and Extending the Concepts
        1. Objectives Review and Key Terms
          1. Objectives Review
            1. Objective 9-1 Explain how companies find and develop new product ideas. (pp 256–257)
            2. Objective 9-2 List and define the steps in the new product development process and the major considerations in managing this process. (pp 257–265)
            3. Objective 9-3 Describe the stages of the product life cycle and how marketing strategies change during a product’s life cycle. Describe the stages of the product life cycle and how marketing strategies change during a product’s life cycle. (pp 265–273)
            4. Objective 9-4 Discuss two additional product issues: socially responsible product decisions and international product and services marketing. (pp 273–275)
          2. Key Terms
            1. Objective 9-1
            2. Objective 9-2
            3. Objective 9-3
        2. Discussion and Critical Thinking
          1. Discussion Questions
          2. Critical Thinking Exercises
        3. Applications and Cases
          1. Online, Mobile, and Social Media Marketing Telemedicine
          2. Marketing Ethics Put On Your Thinking Caps!
          3. Marketing by the Numbers Dental House Calls
          4. Video Case Day2Night Convertible Heels
          5. Company Case Bose: Better Products through Research
            1. The Bose Philosophy
            2. Innovating the Bose Way
              1. Questions for Discussion
    4. 10 Pricing Understanding and Capturing Customer Value
      1. Chapter Preview
      2. Objectives Outline
      3. What Is a Price?
      4. Major Pricing Strategies
        1. Customer Value–Based Pricing
          1. Good-Value Pricing
          2. Value-Added Pricing
        2. Cost-Based Pricing
          1. Types of Costs
          2. Costs at Different Levels of Production
          3. Costs as a Function of Production Experience
          4. Cost-Plus Pricing
          5. Break-Even Analysis and Target Profit Pricing
        3. Competition-Based Pricing
      5. Other Internal and External Considerations Affecting Price Decisions
        1. Overall Marketing Strategy, Objectives, and Mix
        2. Organizational Considerations
        3. The Market and Demand
          1. Pricing in Different Types of Markets
          2. Analyzing the Price–Demand Relationship
          3. Price Elasticity of Demand
        4. The Economy
        5. Other External Factors
      6. 10 Reviewing and Extending the Concepts
        1. Objectives Review and Key Terms
          1. Objectives Review
            1. Objective 10-1 Answer the question “What is a price?” and discuss the importance of pricing in today’s fast-changing environment. Answer the question “What is a price?” and discuss the importance of pricing in today’s fast-changing environment. (pp 284–285)
            2. Objective 10-2 Identify the three major pricing strategies and discuss the importance of understanding customer-value perceptions, company costs, and competitor strategies when setting prices. (pp 285–293)
            3. Objective 10-3 Identify and define the other important external and internal factors affecting a firm’s pricing decisions. Identify and define the other important external and internal factors affecting a firm’s pricing decisions. (pp 293–299)
          2. Key Terms
            1. Objective 10-1
            2. Objective 10-2
            3. Objective 10-3
        2. Discussion and Critical Thinking
          1. Discussion Questions
          2. Critical Thinking Exercises
        3. Applications and Cases
          1. Online, Mobile, and Social Media Marketing Online Price Tracking
          2. Marketing Ethics The Cost of a Life
          3. Marketing by the Numbers Pricey Sheets
          4. Video Case Fast-Food Discount Wars
          5. Company Case Trader Joe’s: Cheap Gourmet—Putting a Special Twist on the Price-Value Equation
            1. High on Benefits
            2. Low on Prices
            3. Something Extra
              1. Questions for Discussion
    5. 11 Pricing Strategies Additional Considerations
      1. Chapter Preview
      2. Objectives Outline
      3. New Product Pricing Strategies
        1. Market-Skimming Pricing
        2. Market-Penetration Pricing
      4. Product Mix Pricing Strategies
        1. Product Line Pricing
        2. Optional-Product Pricing
        3. Captive-Product Pricing
        4. By-Product Pricing
        5. Product Bundle Pricing
      5. Price Adjustment Strategies
        1. Discount and Allowance Pricing
        2. Segmented Pricing
        3. Psychological Pricing
        4. Promotional Pricing
        5. Geographical Pricing
        6. Dynamic and Online Pricing
        7. International Pricing
      6. Price Changes
        1. Initiating Price Changes
          1. Initiating Price Cuts
          2. Initiating Price Increases
          3. Buyer Reactions to Price Changes
          4. Competitor Reactions to Price Changes
        2. Responding to Price Changes
      7. Public Policy and Pricing
        1. Pricing within Channel Levels
        2. Pricing across Channel Levels
      8. 11 Reviewing and Extending the Concepts
        1. Objectives Review and Key Terms
          1. Objectives Review
            1. Objective 11-1 Describe the major strategies for pricing new products. Describe the major strategies for pricing new products. (pp 308–309)
            2. Objective 11-2 Explain how companies find a set of prices that maximizes the profits from the total product mix. (pp 309–311)
            3. Objective 11-3 Discuss how companies adjust their prices to take into account different types of customers and situations. Discuss how companies adjust their prices to take into account different types of customers and situations. (pp 311–319)
            4. Objective 11-4 Discuss the key issues related to initiating and responding to price changes. (pp 320–322)
            5. Objective 11-5 Overview the social and legal issues that affect pricing decisions. (pp 322–326)
          2. Key Terms
            1. Objective 11-1
            2. Objective 11-2
            3. Objective 11-3
        2. Discussion and Critical Thinking
          1. Discussion Questions
          2. Critical Thinking Exercises
        3. Applications and Cases
          1. Online, Mobile, and Social Media Marketing Krazy Coupon Lady
          2. Marketing Ethics Less Bang for Your Buck
          3. Marketing by the Numbers Louis Vuitton Price Increase
          4. Video Case Hammerpress
          5. Company Case Lululemon: Indulging Customers at a Premium Price
            1. Riding the Wave
            2. Where Price Is No Object
            3. Expensive—but Worth It
              1. Questions for Discussion
    6. 12 Marketing Channels Delivering Customer Value
      1. Chapter Preview
      2. Objectives Outline
      3. Supply Chains and the Value Delivery Network
        1. The Nature and Importance of Marketing Channels
          1. How Channel Members Add Value
          2. Number of Channel Levels
      4. Channel Behavior and Organization
        1. Channel Behavior
        2. Vertical Marketing Systems
          1. Corporate VMS
          2. Contractual VMS
          3. Administered VMS
        3. Horizontal Marketing Systems
        4. Multichannel Distribution Systems
        5. Changing Channel Organization
      5. Channel Design Decisions
        1. Analyzing Consumer Needs
        2. Setting Channel Objectives
        3. Identifying Major Alternatives
          1. Types of Intermediaries
          2. Number of Marketing Intermediaries
          3. Responsibilities of Channel Members
        4. Evaluating the Major Alternatives
        5. Designing International Distribution Channels
      6. Channel Management Decisions
        1. Selecting Channel Members
        2. Managing and Motivating Channel Members
        3. Evaluating Channel Members
        4. Public Policy and Distribution Decisions
      7. Marketing Logistics and Supply Chain Management
        1. Nature and Importance of Marketing Logistics
        2. Sustainable Supply Chains
        3. Goals of the Logistics System
        4. Major Logistics Functions
          1. Warehousing
          2. Inventory Management
          3. Transportation
          4. Logistics Information Management
        5. Integrated Logistics Management
          1. Cross-Functional Teamwork Inside the Company
          2. Building Logistics Partnerships
          3. Third-Party Logistics
      8. 12 Reviewing and Extending the Concepts
        1. Objectives Review and Key Terms
          1. Objectives Review
            1. Objective 12-1 Explain why companies use marketing channels and discuss the functions these channels perform. (pp 334–337)
            2. Objective 12-2 Discuss how channel members interact and how they organize to perform the work of the channel. (pp 338–344)
            3. Objective 12-3 Identify the major channel alternatives open to a company. (pp 344–348)
            4. Objective 12-4 Explain how companies select, motivate, and evaluate channel members. (pp 348–352)
            5. Objective 12-5 Discuss the nature and importance of marketing logistics and integrated supply chain management. (pp 352–359)
          2. Key Terms
            1. Objective 12-1
            2. Objective 12-2
            3. Objective 12-3
            4. Objective 12-4
            5. Objective 12-5
        2. Discussion and Critical Thinking
          1. Discussion Questions
          2. Critical Thinking Exercises
        3. Applications and Cases
          1. Online, Mobile, and Social Media Marketing Fabletics Changing Channels
          2. Marketing Ethics Trucker Rest Rules
          3. Marketing by the Numbers Tyson Expanding Distribution
          4. Video Case Progressive
          5. Company Case Apple Pay: Taking Mobile Payments Mainstream
            1. Hardly New
            2. Overcoming Negative Consumer Perceptions
            3. Establishing Points of Acceptance
              1. Questions for Discussion
    7. 13 Retailing and Wholesaling
      1. Chapter Preview
      2. Objectives Outline
      3. Retailing
        1. Retailing: Connecting Brands with Consumers
        2. Types of Retailers
          1. Amount of Service
          2. Product Line
          3. Relative Prices
            1. Discount Stores
            2. Off-Price Retailers
          4. Organizational Approach
      4. Retailer Marketing Decisions
        1. Segmentation, Targeting, Differentiation, and Positioning Decisions
        2. Product Assortment and Services Decision
        3. Price Decision
        4. Promotion Decision
        5. Place Decision
      5. Retailing Trends and Developments
        1. Tighter Consumer Spending
        2. New Retail Forms, Shortening Retail Life Cycles, and Retail Convergence
        3. The Rise of Megaretailers
        4. Growth of Direct, Online, Mobile, and Social Media Retailing
        5. The Need for Omni-Channel Retailing
          1. Growing Importance of Retail Technology
          2. Green Retailing
          3. Global Expansion of Major Retailers
      6. Wholesaling
        1. Types of Wholesalers
          1. Wholesaler Marketing Decisions
            1. Segmentation, Targeting, Differentiation, and Positioning Decisions
            2. Marketing Mix Decisions
        2. Trends in Wholesaling
      7. 13 Reviewing and Extending the Concepts
        1. Objectives Review and Key Terms
          1. Objectives Review
            1. Objective 13-1 Explain the role of retailers in the distribution channel and describe the major types of retailers. (pp 368–375)
            2. Objective 13-2 Describe the major retailer marketing decisions. (pp 376–381)
            3. Objective 13-3 Discuss the major trends and developments in retailing. (pp 381–387)
            4. Objective 13-4 Explain the major types of wholesalers and their marketing decisions. (pp 387–392)
          2. Key Terms
            1. Objective 13-1
            2. Objective 13-2
            3. Objective 13-3
            4. Objective 13-4
        2. Discussion and Critical Thinking
          1. Discussion Questions
          2. Critical Thinking Exercises
        3. Applications and Cases
          1. Online, Mobile, and Social Media Marketing Skipping the Checkout Line
          2. Marketing Ethics Lilly for Target
          3. Marketing by the Numbers Stockturn Rate
          4. Video Case Kmart
          5. Company Case Bass Pro Shops: Creating Nature’s Theme Park for People Who Hate to Shop
            1. Filling a Gap in the Market
            2. Nature’s Theme Park
            3. Half the Size—All the Fun
              1. Questions for Discussion
    8. 14 Engaging Consumers and Communicating Customer Value Integrated Marketing Communication StrategyEngaging Consumers and Communicating Customer Value Integrated Marketing Communication Strategy
      1. Chapter Preview
      2. Objectives Outline
      3. The Promotion Mix
      4. Integrated Marketing Communications
        1. The New Marketing Communications Model
        2. The Need for Integrated Marketing Communications
      5. Developing Effective Marketing Communication
        1. A View of the Communication Process
        2. Steps in Developing Effective Marketing Communication
          1. Identifying the Target Audience
          2. Determining the Communication Objectives
          3. Designing a Message
            1. Message Content
            2. Message Structure
            3. Message Format
          4. Choosing Communication Channels and Media
            1. Personal Communication Channels
            2. Nonpersonal Communication Channels
          5. Selecting the Message Source
          6. Collecting Feedback
      6. Setting the Total Promotion Budget and Mix
        1. Setting the Total Promotion Budget
          1. Affordable Method
          2. Percentage-of-Sales Method
          3. Competitive-Parity Method
          4. Objective-and-Task Method
        2. Shaping the Overall Promotion Mix
          1. The Nature of Each Promotion Tool
            1. Advertising
            2. Personal Selling
            3. Sales Promotion
            4. Public Relations
            5. Direct and Digital Marketing
          2. Promotion Mix Strategies
        3. Integrating the Promotion Mix
        4. Socially Responsible Marketing Communication
          1. Advertising and Sales Promotion
          2. Personal Selling
      7. 14 Reviewing and Extending the Concepts
        1. Objectives Review and Key Terms
          1. Objectives Review
            1. Objective 14-1 Define the five promotion mix tools for communicating customer value. Define the five promotion mix tools for communicating customer value. (pp 400–401)
            2. Objective 14-2 Discuss the changing communications landscape and the need for integrated marketing communications. (pp 401–406)
            3. Objective 14-3 Outline the communication process and the steps in developing effective marketing communications. (pp 406–413)
            4. Objective 14-4 Explain the methods for setting the promotion budget and factors that affect the design of the promotion mix. (pp 413–420)
          2. Key Terms
            1. Objective 14-1
            2. Objective 14-2
            3. Objective 14-3
            4. Objective 14-4
        2. Discussion and Critical Thinking
          1. Discussion Questions
          2. Critical Thinking Exercises
        3. Applications and Cases
          1. Online, Mobile, and Social Media Marketing #withoutshoes
          2. Marketing Ethics An Ethical Promotion?
          3. Marketing by the Numbers Advertising-to-Sales Ratios
          4. Video Case OXO
          5. Company Case Volvo Trucks: Integrated Marketing Communications of Epic Proportions
            1. A Consumer Approach
            2. Appealing to the Masses with “Live Tests”
            3. The Synergy of IMC
              1. Questions for Discussion
    9. 15 Advertising and Public Relations
      1. Chapter Preview
      2. Objectives Outline
      3. Advertising
      4. Major Advertising Decisions
        1. Setting Advertising Objectives
        2. Setting the Advertising Budget
          1. Developing Advertising Strategy
          2. Creating the Advertising Message and Brand Content
            1. Breaking Through the Clutter
            2. Merging Advertising and Entertainment
            3. Message and Content Strategy
            4. Message Execution
            5. Consumer-Generated Content
          3. Selecting Advertising Media
            1. Determining Reach, Frequency, Impact, and Engagement
            2. Choosing among Major Media Types
            3. Selecting Specific Media Vehicles
            4. Deciding on Media Timing
        3. Evaluating Advertising Effectiveness and the Return on Advertising Investment
        4. Other Advertising Considerations
          1. Organizing for Advertising
          2. International Advertising Decisions
      5. Public Relations
        1. The Role and Impact of PR
      6. Major Public Relations Tools
      7. 15 Reviewing and Extending the Concepts
        1. Objectives Review and Key Terms
          1. Objectives Review
            1. Objective 15-1 Define the role of advertising in the promotion mix. (pp 428)
            2. Objective 15-2 Describe the major decisions involved in developing an advertising program. (pp 429–446)
            3. Objective 15-3 Define the role of public relations in the promotion mix. (pp 446–448)
            4. Objective 15-4 Explain how companies use public relations to communicate with their publics. (p 448 )
          2. Key Terms
            1. Objective 15-1
            2. Objective 15-2
            3. Objective 15-3
        2. Discussion and Critical Thinking
          1. Discussion Questions
          2. Critical Thinking Exercises
        3. Applications and Cases
          1. Online, Mobile, and Social Media Marketing Facebook Audience Network
          2. Marketing Ethics Native Advertising
          3. Marketing by the Numbers C3, CPM, and CPP
          4. Video Case Kmart
          5. Company Case Allstate: Bringing Mayhem to the Auto Insurance Advertising Wars
            1. An Advertising Shakeup
            2. “Good Hands” Meets Mayhem
            3. Mayhem Redux
              1. Questions for Discussion
    10. 16 Personal Selling and Sales Promotion
      1. Chapter Preview
      2. Objectives Outline
      3. Personal Selling
        1. The Nature of Personal Selling
        2. The Role of the Sales Force
          1. Linking the Company with Its Customers
          2. Coordinating Marketing and Sales
      4. Managing the Sales Force
        1. Designing the Sales Force Strategy and Structure
          1. The Sales Force Structure
          2. Sales Force Size
          3. Other Sales Force Strategy and Structure Issues
            1. Outside and Inside Sales Forces
            2. Team Selling
        2. Recruiting and Selecting Salespeople
        3. Training Salespeople
        4. Compensating Salespeople
        5. Supervising and Motivating Salespeople
          1. Supervising Salespeople
          2. Motivating Salespeople
        6. Evaluating Salespeople and Sales Force Performance
        7. Social Selling: Online, Mobile, and Social Media Tools
      5. The Personal Selling Process
        1. Steps in the Selling Process
          1. Prospecting and Qualifying
          2. Preapproach
          3. Approach
          4. Presentation and Demonstration
          5. Handling Objections
          6. Closing
          7. Follow-Up
        2. Personal Selling and Managing Customer Relationships
      6. Sales Promotion
        1. The Rapid Growth of Sales Promotion
        2. Sales Promotion Objectives
        3. Major Sales Promotion Tools
          1. Consumer Promotions
          2. Trade Promotions
          3. Business Promotions
        4. Developing the Sales Promotion Program
      7. 16 Reviewing and Extending the Concepts
        1. Objectives Review and Key Terms
          1. Objectives Review
            1. Objective 16-1 Discuss the role of a company’s salespeople in creating value for customers and building customer relationships. Discuss the role of a company’s salespeople in creating value for customers and building customer relationships. (pp 456–458)
            2. Objective 16-2 Identify and explain the six major sales force management steps. (pp 458–469)
            3. Objective 16-3 Discuss the personal selling process, distinguishing between transaction-oriented marketing and relationship marketing. (pp 469–472)
            4. Objective 16-4 Explain how sales promotion campaigns are developed and implemented. (pp 472–479)
          2. Key Terms
            1. Objective 16-1
            2. Objective 16-2
            3. Objective 16-3
            4. Objective 16-4
        2. Discussion and Critical Thinking
          1. Discussion Questions
          2. Critical Thinking Exercises
        3. Applications and Cases
          1. Online, Mobile, and Social Media Marketing Snap It and Redeem It!
          2. Marketing Ethics Walking the Customer
          3. Marketing by the Numbers Sales Force Analysis
          4. Video Case First Flavor
          5. Company Case SunGard: Building Sustained Growth by Selling the SunGard Way
            1. Pioneering a New Industry
            2. Good, but Not Great
            3. Setting Transformation in Motion
            4. From Transformation to Results
              1. Questions for Discussion
    11. 17 Direct, Online, Social Media, and Mobile MarketingDirect, Online, Social Media, and Mobile Marketing
      1. Chapter Preview
      2. Objectives Outline
      3. Direct and Digital Marketing
        1. The New Direct Marketing Model
        2. Rapid Growth of Direct and Digital Marketing
        3. Benefits of Direct and Digital Marketing to Buyers and Sellers
      4. Forms of Direct and Digital Marketing
      5. Marketing, the Internet, and the Digital Age
        1. Online Marketing
          1. Websites and Branded Web Communities
          2. Online Advertising
          3. Email Marketing
          4. Online Videos
          5. Blogs and Other Online Forums
      6. Social Media and Mobile Marketing
        1. Social Media Marketing
          1. Using Social Media
          2. Social Media Marketing Advantages and Challenges
          3. Integrated Social Media Marketing
        2. Mobile Marketing
      7. Traditional Direct Marketing Forms
        1. Direct-Mail Marketing
        2. Catalog Marketing
        3. Telemarketing
        4. Direct-Response Television Marketing
        5. Kiosk Marketing
        6. Public Policy Issues in Direct and Digital Marketing
          1. Irritation, Unfairness, Deception, and Fraud
          2. Consumer Privacy
          3. A Need for Action
      8. 17 Reviewing and Extending the Concepts
        1. Objectives Review and Key Terms
          1. Objectives Review
            1. Objective 17-1 Define direct and digital marketing and discuss their rapid growth and benefits to customers and companies.  and discuss their rapid growth and benefits to customers and companies. (pp 488–490)
            2. Objective 17-2 Identify and discuss the major forms of direct and digital marketing. Identify and discuss the major forms of direct and digital marketing. (pp 490–491)
            3. Objective 17-3 Explain how companies have responded to the internet and the digital age with various online marketing strategies. (pp 491–497)
            4. Objective 17-4 Discuss how companies use social media and mobile marketing to engage consumers and create brand community. (pp 497–503)
            5. Objective 17-5 Identify and discuss the traditional direct marketing forms and overview the public policy and ethical issues presented by direct marketing. (pp 504–510)
          2. Key Terms
            1. Objective 17-1
            2. Objective 17-2
            3. Objective 17-3
            4. Objective 17-4
            5. Objective 17-5
        2. Discussion and Critical Thinking
          1. Discussion Questions
          2. Critical Thinking Exercises
        3. Applications and Cases
          1. Online, Mobile, and Social Media Marketing “Buy” Buttons
          2. Marketing Ethics #Fail
          3. Marketing by the Numbers Field Sales versus Telemarketing
          4. Video Case Nutrisystem
          5. Company Case Alibaba: The World’s Largest E-tailer Is Not Amazon
            1. Unlikely Beginnings
            2. Feeding the Masses
            3. A Little of Everything
              1. Questions for Discussion
  14. Part 4: Extending Marketing (Chapters 18––20)
    1. 18 Creating Competitive Advantage
      1. Chapter Preview
      2. Objectives Outline
      3. Competitor Analysis
        1. Identifying Competitors
        2. Assessing Competitors
          1. Determining Competitors’ Objectives
          2. Identifying Competitors’ Strategies
          3. Assessing Competitors’ Strengths and Weaknesses
          4. Estimating Competitors’ Reactions
        3. Selecting Competitors to Attack and Avoid
          1. Strong or Weak Competitors
          2. Good or Bad Competitors
          3. Finding Uncontested Market Spaces
        4. Designing a Competitive Intelligence System
      4. Competitive Strategies
        1. Approaches to Marketing Strategy
        2. Basic Competitive Strategies
        3. Competitive Positions
        4. Market Leader Strategies
          1. Expanding Total Demand
          2. Protecting Market Share
          3. Expanding Market Share
        5. Market Challenger Strategies
        6. Market Follower Strategies
        7. Market Nicher Strategies
      5. Balancing Customer and Competitor Orientations
      6. 18 Reviewing and Extending the Concepts
        1. Objectives Review and Key Terms
          1. Objectives Review
            1. Objective 18-1 Discuss the need to understand competitors as well as customers through competitor analysis. Discuss the need to understand competitors as well as customers through competitor analysis. (pp 518–525)
            2. Objective 18-2 Explain the fundamentals of competitive marketing strategies based on creating value for customers. Explain the fundamentals of competitive marketing strategies based on creating value for customers. (pp 525–535)
            3. Objective 18-3 Illustrate the need for balancing customer and competitor orientations in becoming a truly market-centered organization. Illustrate the need for balancing customer and competitor orientations in becoming a truly market-centered organization. (pp 535–536)
          2. Key Terms
            1. Objective 18-1
            2. Objective 18-2
            3. Objective 18-3
        2. Discussion and Critical Thinking
          1. Discussion Questions
          2. Critical Thinking Exercises
        3. Applications and Cases
          1. Online, Mobile, and Social Media Marketing Social Logins
          2. Marketing Ethics Creating Competitive Advantage . . . to What End?
          3. Marketing by the Numbers Market Share
          4. Video Case Umpqua Bank
          5. Company Case YouTube: Google’s Quest for Video Dominance
            1. “I Want My TV!”
            2. The Competition Intensifies
            3. Doing Video Its Own Way
              1. Questions for Discussion
    2. 19 The Global Marketplace
      1. Chapter Preview
      2. Objectives Outline
      3. Global Marketing Today
        1. Elements of the Global Marketing Environment
          1. The International Trade System
            1. The World Trade Organization
            2. Regional Free Trade Zones
          2. Economic Environment
          3. Political-Legal Environment
          4. Cultural Environment
            1. The Impact of Culture on Marketing Strategy
            2. The Impact of Marketing Strategy on Cultures
        2. Deciding Whether to Go Global
        3. Deciding Which Markets to Enter
      4. Deciding How to Enter the Market
        1. Exporting
        2. Joint Venturing
          1. Licensing
          2. Contract Manufacturing
          3. Management Contracting
          4. Joint Ownership
        3. Direct Investment
      5. Deciding on the Global Marketing Program
        1. Product
        2. Promotion
        3. Price
        4. Distribution Channels
      6. Deciding on the Global Marketing Organization
      7. 19 Reviewing and Extending the Concepts
        1. Objectives Review and Key Terms
          1. Objectives Review
          2. Objective 19-1 Discuss how the international trade system and the economic, political-legal, and cultural environments affect a company’s international marketing decisions. Discuss how the international trade system and the economic, political-legal, and cultural environments affect a company’s international marketing decisions. (pp 544–556)
          3. Objective 19-2 Describe three key approaches to entering international markets. Describe three key approaches to entering international markets. (pp 556–558)
          4. Objective 19-3 Explain how companies adapt their marketing strategies and mixes for international markets. Explain how companies adapt their marketing strategies and mixes for international markets. (pp 559–566)
          5. Objective 19-4 Identify the three major forms of international marketing organization. Identify the three major forms of international marketing organization. (p 566)
        2. Key Terms
          1. Objective 19-1
          2. Objective 19-2
          3. Objective 19-3
        3. Discussion and Critical Thinking
          1. Discussion Questions
          2. Critical Thinking Exercises
        4. Applications and Cases
          1. Online, Mobile, and Social Media Marketing China’s Great Firewall
          2. Marketing Ethics Global Safety Standards
          3. Marketing by the Numbers Netflix’s Global Expansion
          4. Video Case Monster
          5. Company Case L’Oréal: The United Nations of Beauty
            1. Because I’m Worth It
            2. Beauty from Multiple Perspectives
            3. Diving Deep for Beauty
              1. Questions for Discussion
    3. 20 Sustainable Marketing Social Responsibility and Ethics
      1. Chapter Preview
      2. Objectives Outline
      3. Sustainable Marketing
      4. Social Criticisms of Marketing
        1. Marketing’s Impact on Individual Consumers
          1. High Prices
          2. Deceptive Practices
          3. High-Pressure Selling
          4. Shoddy, Harmful, or Unsafe Products
          5. Planned Obsolescence
          6. Poor Service to Disadvantaged Consumers
        2. Marketing’s Impact on Society as a Whole
          1. False Wants and Too Much Materialism
          2. Too Few Social Goods
          3. Cultural Pollution
        3. Marketing’s Impact on Other Businesses
      5. Consumer Actions to Promote Sustainable Marketing
        1. Consumerism
        2. Environmentalism
        3. Public Actions to Regulate Marketing
      6. Business Actions Toward Sustainable Marketing
        1. Sustainable Marketing Principles
          1. Consumer-Oriented Marketing
          2. Customer Value Marketing
          3. Innovative Marketing
          4. Sense-of-Mission Marketing
          5. Societal Marketing
      7. Marketing Ethics and the Sustainable Company
        1. Marketing Ethics
        2. The Sustainable Company
      8. 20 Reviewing and Extending the Concepts
        1. Objectives Review and Key Terms
          1. Objectives Review
          2. Objective 20-1 Define sustainable marketing and discuss its importance. Define sustainable marketing and discuss its importance. (pp 574–576)
          3. Objective 20-2 Identify the major social criticisms of marketing. Identify the major social criticisms of marketing. (pp 576–583)
          4. Objective 20-3 Define consumerism and environmentalism and explain how they affect marketing strategies.  and explain how they affect marketing strategies. (pp 583–589)
          5. Objective 20-4 Describe the principles of sustainable marketing. Describe the principles of sustainable marketing. (pp 589–593)
          6. Objective 20-5 Explain the role of ethics in marketing. Explain the role of ethics in marketing. (pp 593–596)
        2. Key Terms
          1. Objective 20-1
          2. Objective 20-3
          3. Objective 20-4
        3. Discussion and Critical Thinking
          1. Discussion Questions
          2. Critical Thinking Exercises
        4. Applications and Cases
          1. Online, Mobile, and Social Media Marketing Teens and Social Media
          2. Marketing Ethics Milking the International Market
          3. Marketing by the Numbers The Cost of Sustainability
          4. Video Case Honest Tea
          5. Company Case adidas: Athletic Apparel with Purpose
            1. A Marathon, Not a Sprint
            2. The Four Ps of Sustainability
            3. Doing Well by Doing Good?
              1. Questions for Discussion
  15. Appendix 1 Marketing Plan
    1. The Marketing Plan: An Introduction
      1. The Purpose and Content of a Marketing Plan
      2. The Role of Research
      3. The Role of Relationships
      4. From Marketing Plan to Marketing Action
    2. Sample Marketing Plan: Chill Beverage Company
      1. Executive Summary
      2. Current Marketing Situation
        1. Market Description
        2. Product Review
        3. Competitive Review
        4. Channels and Logistics Review
      3. Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threat Analysis
        1. Strengths
        2. Weaknesses
        3. Opportunities
        4. Threats
      4. Objectives and Issues
        1. First-Year Objectives
        2. Second-Year Objectives
        3. Issues
      5. Marketing Strategy
        1. Positioning
        2. Product Strategy
        3. Pricing
        4. Distribution Strategy
        5. Marketing Communication Strategy
        6. Marketing Research
      6. Action Programs
      7. Budgets
      8. Controls
  16. Appendix 2 Marketing by the Numbers
    1. Pricing, Break-Even, and Margin Analysis
      1. Pricing Considerations
        1. Determining Costs
      2. Setting Price Based on Costs
      3. Setting Price Based on External Factors
      4. Break-Even and Margin Analysis
        1. Determining Break-Even Unit Volume and Dollar Sales
      5. Determining “Breakeven” for Profit Goals
      6. Marketing by the Numbers Exercise Set One
    2. Demand Estimates, the Marketing Budget, and Marketing Performance Measures
      1. Market Potential and Sales Estimates
      2. The Profit-and-Loss Statement and Marketing Budget
      3. Marketing Performance Measures
      4. Analytic Ratios
      5. Marketing Profitability Metrics
        1. Net Marketing Contribution
        2. Marketing Return on Sales and Investment
      6. Marketing by the Numbers Exercise Set Two
    3. Financial Analysis of Marketing Tactics
      1. Increase Advertising Expenditures
      2. Increase Distribution Coverage
      3. Decrease Price
      4. Extend the Product Line
      5. Marketing by the Numbers Exercise Set Three
  17. Appendix 3 Careers in Marketing
    1. Marketing Careers Today
      1. Overall Marketing Facts and Trends
    2. Looking for a Job in Today’s Marketing World
      1. Conduct a Self-Assessment and Seek Career Counseling
      2. Examine Job Descriptions
      3. Explore the Job Market and Assess Opportunities
        1. Career Development Centers
        2. Job Fairs
        3. Networking
        4. Internships
        5. Job Hunting on the Internet
        6. Professional Networking Sites
      4. Develop Search Strategies
      5. Prepare Résumés
        1. Online Résumés
        2. Résumé Tips
      6. Write Cover Letter, Follow Up, and Assemble Supporting Documents
        1. Cover Letter
        2. Follow Up
        3. Letters of Recommendation
      7. Interview for Jobs
        1. Before the Interview
        2. During the Interview
        3. After the Interview
      8. Follow-Up Interview
    3. Marketing Jobs
      1. Advertising
        1. Job Descriptions
        2. Skills Needed, Career Paths, and Typical Salaries
      2. Brand and Product Management
        1. Job Descriptions
        2. Skills Needed, Career Paths, and Typical Salaries
      3. Sales and Sales Management
        1. Job Descriptions
        2. Skills Needed, Career Paths, and Typical Salaries
      4. Other Marketing Jobs
        1. Retailing
        2. Marketing Research
        3. New Product Planning
        4. Marketing Logistics (Physical Distribution)
        5. Public Relations
        6. Not-for-Profit Services
    4. Other Resources
  18. Glossary
  19. References
  20. Index
    1. Brand, Company, Name, and Organization Index
      1. A
      2. B
      3. C
      4. D
      5. E
      6. F
      7. G
      8. H
      9. I
      10. J
      11. K
      12. L
      13. M
      14. N
      15. O
      16. P
      17. Q
      18. R
      19. S
      20. T
      21. U
      22. V
      23. W
      24. X
      25. Y
      26. Z
    2. Subject Index
      1. A
      2. B
      3. C
      4. D
      5. E
      6. F
      7. G
      8. H
      9. I
      10. J
      11. K
      12. L
      13. M
      14. N
      15. O
      16. P
      17. Q
      18. R
      19. S
      20. T
      21. U
      22. V
      23. W
      24. Y
      25. Z

Product Information

  • Title: Principles of Marketing, 17/e
  • Author(s): Philip T. Kotler, Gary Armstrong
  • Release date: January 2017
  • Publisher(s): Pearson
  • ISBN: 9780134492513