These various modes of ﬁnancing, also provided by other private-sector Islamic
banks and Islamic ﬁnance departments of international banks, can be provided as
part of a project ﬁnance package, in parallel with banks lending on a conventional
IDB ﬁnancing is provided for up to 12 years, at ﬁxed or ﬂoating rates of mark-
up, and for a maximum of 20 million “Islamic dinars” (an artiﬁcial unit equal to
one Special Drawing Right [SDR] of the IMF, i.e., approximately $25 million).
§11.7 PRIVATE-SECTOR INSURANCE
Until recently the private-sector insurance market played little role in the politi-
cal risk ﬁeld. The coverage offered was limited in amount, scope, and term. This
situation has changed rapidly, not least because of cooperation with the public
sector, such as through MIGA’s CUP program or coinsurance with OPIC. Ma-
jor insurers in the market include AIG, Chubb, Lloyds, Swiss Re, and Zurich-
American; overall, more than 20 insurance companies offer political risk coverage
of up to $150 million per project, in some cases for terms of up to 15 years. The
nature of the coverage reﬂects that offered by that of ECAs to both investors and
lenders. Private-sector insurers may, like some ECAs, require the investor to re-
tain, say, 10% of the insured risk.
The private sector may also offer “bridging” cover, if it would take too much
time until the necessary procedures for ECAs or IFIs to provide coverage have
been completed; if the ECA or IFI coverage is never provided, the private-sector
It should be noted that whereas public-sector insurers of political risk, whether
of equity or debt, generally require that their presence in the transaction is pub-
licly known (and often require the Host Government to counterindemnify them),
private insurers may make it a condition of their insurance’s validity that its exis-
tence is not revealed, so as avoid any party behaving badly in the knowledge that
insurers will pick up the loss.
§11.7 Private-Sector Insurance 249
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