Appendix A

The manufacture of transistors and integrated circuits

This appendix surveys the various methods which have been used to manufacture transistors and semiconductor diodes, beginning with the ‘dope-growing’ and alloy-junction process used for the first germanium transistors and ending with the planar process now used to manufacture silicon transistors and i.cs.

Preparation of germanium for transistor manufacture

Germanium is obtained as a byproduct of metal refining, e.g. zinc-refìning, in the U.S.A. and can also be obtained from the flue dust of certain coals in the U.K. After extraction by chemical methods, the germanium is usually marketed in the form of the dioxide GeO2, a white powder.

The first step in the production of germanium for ...

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