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Process Control: Modeling, Design, and Simulation by B. Wayne Bequette

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1.2. Instrumentation

The example level-control problem had three critical pieces of instrumentation: a sensor (measurement device), actuator (manipulated input device), and controller. The sensor measured the tank level, the actuator changed the flow rate, and the controller determined how much to vary the actuator, based on the sensor signal.

There are many common sensors used for chemical processes. These include temperature, level, pressure, flow, composition, and pH. The most common manipulated input is the valve actuator signal (usually pneumatic).

Each device in a control loop must supply or receive a signal from another device. When these signals are continuous, such as electrical current or voltage, we use the term analog. If the signals ...

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