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Process Control: Modeling, Design, and Simulation by B. Wayne Bequette

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2.4. Constitutive Relationships

Examples 2.1 and 2.2 required more than simple material balances to define the modeling equations. These required relationships are known as constitutive equations; several examples of constitutive equations are shown in this section.

Gas Law

Process systems containing a gas will often need a gas-law expression in the model. The ideal gas law is commonly used to relate pressure (P), molar volume (), and temperature (T):

Equation 2.33

The van der Waal's PT relationship contains two parameters (a and b) that are system ...

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