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Process Control: Modeling, Design, and Simulation by B. Wayne Bequette

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6.2. Closed-Loop Oscillation-Based Tuning

A PID controller has three tuning parameters. If these are adjusted in an ad hoc fashion, it may take a while for satisfactory performance to be obtained. Also, each tuning technician will end up with a different set of tuning parameters. There is plenty of motivation, then, to develop an algorithmic approach to controller tuning. The first widely used method for PID tuning was published by Ziegler and Nichols in 1942.

Ziegler-Nichols Closed-Loop Method

The Ziegler-Nichols closed-loop tuning technique was perhaps the first rigorous method to tune PID controllers. The technique is not widely used today because the closed-loop behavior tends to be oscillatory and sensitive to uncertainty. We study the technique ...

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