Design Documentation 183
LAYOUT
An orthographic drawing shows an image of an object from several views on one
page. Each view (surface) is drawn as it would appear looking straight at it, with no
perspective or other distortion to the image. The primar y view for the object is gener-
ally referred to as the front view. All other views are located horizontally or vertically
in line with the front view. Each adjacent view shows what the object would look like
as you rotate it
90 degrees.
09
A standard orthographic layout contains a horizontal and vertical axis with the primary (front)
view at the intersection. Side and back views are located along the horizontal axis, while the
top and bottom views are located on the vertical axis. A common European practice has been
to use another layout called first surface projecting. This reverses the position of the left and
right views as well as the top and bottom views in relation to the front view.
PROJECT: Or thographic Drawing
SCALE: Full
TITLE: MP3 Speaker
DWG BY: DXP DATE: 24May2005
WITNESS: SHEET NUMBER: 1 of 1
Top
Bottom
Left Side Front Right Side Back
2
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184 PROCESS, MATERIALS, AND MEASUREMENTS
One way to think about the orientation of the views on an ANSI-compliant orthographic drawing
is to consider the object as a box that has been opened up and unfolded.
Line Weights and Styles
Orthographic drawings use a variety of line weights and styles. Styles are used to
signify what the line is describing, while line weight is used to help describe each
style and illustrate differences with the solid line.
inch mm
.002 .05
.005 .13
.010 .25
.016 .41
.020 .51
.032 .81
.040 1.02
.050 1.27
Very Light
Light
Medium
Bold
Line weights are measured in simple, subjective terms when drawn by hand: very light, light,
medium, and bold. With the use of computers, line weights are now measured in many thick-
nesses, usually in a dimensional scale:
.05–1.27 mm or .002–.050"
O
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175 Size : 146.05(w) 209.55(h)mm _M2_Mac D
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Design Documentation 185
09
p185
Various line types are used to convey different kinds of information in a control drawing. Solid
lines can be used for many purposes depending on the weight, including construction, object,
dimensions, borders, and notes. Other types have dedicated purposes and are commonly used
in single line weights.
Type
Construction / Hand Drawn
Construction / Digital
Solid
Hidden Object
Center
Phantom
Dash
Typical Drafting Palette
Construction / Hand Drawn
Construction / Digital
Object Line – Secondary / Visible
Object Line – Primary / Outline
Hidden Object Line
Center
Phantom
Dimension
Dash
The combination of line type and weight make up the style. This chart depicts a typical palette
of line styles used in a design control drawing.
Style
Solid – Very Light
Dotted – Light
Solid – Light
Solid – Medium
Solid – Light
Center – Medium/Bold
Phantom – Light
Solid – Light
Dash – Medium
Solid – Bold
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