In today’s production world, many of the lines seem unpaced and unbalanced. Inside this book, you will learn new designs for these lines that can lead to more efficiency by taking advantage of inherent imbalance—for example, operators who work at different speeds—a concept that has traditionally been seen as an obstacle to efficient production. The authors have included a series of experiments that illustrate the issues involved in improving performance through production line imbalance, as well as some surprisingly easy ways to improve performance with low or zero costs. Emphasis is placed on reducing the amount of time production lines lie idle, and on reducing work in process. This is a timely contribution to the field when managers are casting around for new ways to cut waste and reduce their use of natural resources.