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Programming Computer Vision with Python by Jan Erik Solem

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Chapter 5. Multiple View Geometry

This chapter will show you how to handle multiple views and how to use the geometric relationships between them to recover camera positions and 3D structure. With images taken at different view points, it is possible to compute 3D scene points as well as camera locations from feature matches. We introduce the necessary tools and show a complete 3D reconstruction example. The last part of the chapter shows how to compute dense depth reconstructions from stereo images.

5.1 Epipolar Geometry

Multiple view geometry is the field studying the relationship between cameras and features when there are correspondences between many images that are taken from varying viewpoints. The image features are usually interest points, and we will focus on that case throughout this chapter. The most important constellation is two-view geometry.

With two views of a scene and corresponding points in these views, there are geometric constraints on the image points as a result of the relative orientation of the cameras, the properties of the cameras, and the position of the 3D points. These geometric relationships are described by what is called epipolar geometry. This section will give a very short description of the basic components we need. For more details on the subject, see [13].

Without any prior knowledge of the cameras, there is an inherent ambiguity in that a 3D point, X, transformed with an arbitrary (4 × 4) homography H as HX will have the same image point in a camera ...

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