Appendix A. A Brief History of Artificial Intelligence

The term artificial intelligence (AI) was first used in 1955 by a small group of researchers at Dartmouth College in Hanover, New Hampshire. The group started a summer project to determine if intelligence could be simulated using a machine. More than 50 years later, the world is still trying to make the same determination. In some ways we are closer to simulating human intelligence, and in other ways we are further away.

During the past 50 years, there have been more failures than successes in the area of AI. Although it seemed like a lot of progress was made in the late 1950s, the 1960s and 1970s forced researchers to realize that reproducing human intelligence was harder than they first imagined. ...

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