Memory Management

Historically, memory-related issues are the origin of many bugs. Win32 processes, including managed applications, own resources. Of those resources, virtual memory is one of the most important. Win32 processes normally own 4 gigabytes (GB) of virtual memory, where the operating system resides in the upper 2 GB. The upper 2 GB are shared and protected from user mode access. The lower 2 GB are private memory, where the application code, heaps, static data area, stack, and other sections of the individual application are loaded. This memory is protected from access by other processes. The Virtual Memory Manager (VMM), which is the kernel-level component of the NT Executive, guards private memory from incidental or deliberate changes ...

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