Since Python is a general-purpose programming language, it's also reasonable to consider writing a handcoded parser. For instance, recursive descent parsing is a fairly well-known technique for analyzing language-based information. Since Python is a very high-level language, writing the parser itself is usually easier than it would be in a traditional language such as C or C++.
To illustrate, this section develops a custom parser for a simple grammar: it parses and evaluates arithmetic expression strings. This example also demonstrates the utility of Python as a general-purpose programming language. Although Python is often used as a frontend or rapid development language, it's also useful for the kinds of things we'd normally write in a systems development language such as C or C++.
The grammar that our parser will recognize can be described as follows:
goal -> <expr> END [number, variable, ( ] goal -> <assign> END [set] assign -> 'set' <variable> <expr> [set] expr -> <factor> <expr-tail> [number, variable, ( ] expr-tail -> ^ [END, ) ] expr-tail -> '+' <factor> <expr-tail> [+] expr-tail -> '-' <factor> <expr-tail> [-] factor -> <term> <factor-tail> [number, variable, ( ] factor-tail -> ^ [+, -, END, ) ] factor-tail -> '*' <term> <factor-tail> [*] factor-tail -> '/' <term> <factor-tail> [/] term -> <number> [number] term -> <variable> [variable] term -> '(' <expr> ')' [(] tokens: (, ), num, var, -, +, /, *, set, end
This is a fairly typical ...