1. This chapter adopted from David I. Cleland and Lewis R. Ireland “The Evolution of Project Management,” in David I. Cleland and Roland Gareis (eds.), The Global Project Management Handbook, 2nd ed. (NY: McGraw-Hill, 2006).

2. Daniel Defoe, An Essay Upon Projects (Menston, England: The Scholar Press, 1969), p. ii.

3. Defoe, ibid. p. 8.

4. Defoe, ibid. p. 25.

5. Defoe, ibid. p. 27.

6. Defoe, ibid. p. ii.

7. David McCullough, The Path between the Seas: The Creation of the Panama Canal 1870–1914 (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1977).

8. Thomas A. Stewart, “The Corporate Jungle Spawns a New Species: The Project Manager,” Fortune, July 10, 1995, pp. 170–180.

1Ralph Currier Davis, The Fundamentals of Top Management (New York: Harper, 1951), p. 268.

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