A system of management is an asset, and a good system is a valuable asset.
—Henry L. Gantt, 1913
The development of project management tools, techniques, and principles followed similar work on scientific management in manufacturing by approximately 50 years. Efficient and effective project management required a unique system, just as manufacturing processes had required a unique scientific management system in the early twentieth century. The current practice of project management cuts across and integrates all the legacy systems within an organization and, using concepts from engineering, economics, accounting, and basic management, ...