Choose the Right Protection
from the issue date. The types of patents and patent applications are
detailed in Chapter Two.
The first step to protecting an idea is to determine what type of
intellectual property will best protect it. Table 1.1 provides a sum-
mary of copyright, trademark, trade secret, and patent protection at a
glance to help you decide how to protect your idea.
Annotated References
1. 17 U.S.C. w
(Statutory definition of a copyright.)
2. 15 U.S.C. w
(Statutory dqqnition of a trademark.)
3. 18 U.S.C. w
(Statutory doqnition of a trade secret.)
4. 35 U.S.C. w
dqqniaon ofapatent.)
5. 15 U.S.C. w
(Portion of the trademark statute known as the Lanham
6. 17 U.S.C. w
(Statutory definition ofcopyrightprotection.)
7. Donald Bruce & Co. v. B.N. Multi Corn Corp., No. 96C 8083 (N.D. Ill.
May 21, 1997).
(Example of a useful item protected with a copyright.)
8. Magnussen Furniture, Inc. v. Collezione Europa USA, Inc., No. 96-1917
(4th Cir. June 19, 1997).
(Example of a useful item that was notprotectable ~vith a copyright.)
9. 17 U.S.C. w
(Statutory definition of ~vhat a copyright does notprotect.)
10. Burrow-Giles Lithographic Co. v. Sarony, 111 U.S. 53, 58 (1884).
dent for definition of an author.)
11. Goldstein v. California, 412 U.S. 546,561, 178 U.S.P.O< 129, 135 (1973).
(Precedent for definition of an author.)
12. Community for Creative Non-Violence v. Reid, 490 U.S. 730, 737, 10
U.S.P.O<2d 1985, 1989 (1989).
(Precedent for definition of an author.)
13. 17 U.S.C. w
(Statutory definition of an author of a
made for hire.)
14. 17 U.S.C. w
(Statutory definition of a work madeforhire.)
15. 17 U.S.C.
w (Statute relating to copyrights and U.S. government works.)
16. 17 U.S.C. w
(Statutory definition of copyright infn'ngement.)
17. Religious Technology Center v. Lerma, Cir. A. No. 95-1107-A (E.D. Va.
Bench order January 19, 1996).
(Example of copyright infn'ngement on the lnternet.)
18. Psihoyos v. Liberation, Inc., No. 96 Cir. 3609 (LMM) (S.D.N.Y. April 30,
(Example of copyright infringement without a sale of copyrighted material.)
Annotated References
19. Castle Rock Entertainment v. Carol Publishing Group, 95 Cir.
(S.D.N.Y. Feb. 27, 1997).
(Example where copyright extends to other media.)
20. 17 U.S.C. w
(Statute relatingto the four factors for fair use.)
21. Golden Dorr, Inc. v. Odisho, 646 F.2d 347, 208 U.S.P.Q:. 638 (9th Cir.
(Precedent for states granting more rights to prevent consumer confusion.)
22. Tonka Corp. v. Tonk-A-Phone, 805 F.2d 793, 231 U.S.P.Q: 872 (8th Cir.
(Precedent making it easier to meet the requirements needed to show trademark infn'nge-
ment occurred.)
23. 15 U.S.C. w 1114.
(Statutory definition of trademark infringement.)
24. P.L. 104-98.
(Trademark infringement under the Federal Trademark Dilution
25. Meridian Mutual Insurance Company v. Meridian Insurance Group, Inc.,
N o. 97-1963 (7 th Cir. October 29, 1997 ).
(Example of trademark confusion.)
26. Hasbro, Inc. v. Internet Entertainment Group, (W.D. Wash. February 5,
(Example of a trademark that had been tarnished.)
27. Panavision International L.P.v. Toeppen, No. CV 96-3284 (C.D. Cal. No-
vember 1, 1996).
(Example of trademark misuse on the Internet.)
28. 15 U.S.C. w167 1059.
(Statutory definition of the duration of a trademark reg-
29. Dow Chemical Co. v. General Electric Co., No. 97-541-311C2 (Oakland
County (MI) Cir. Ct., filed April 1, 1997).
(Example of a potential disclosure of company
trade secrets.)
30. Injection Research Specialists v. Polaris Indus., No. 90-Z-1143 (D. Colo.
Jury verdict April 25, 1997).
(Example of trade secret theft.)
31. Atlas Powder Co. v. E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Co., 750 E2d 1569, 1580,
224 U.S.P.0<. 409, 416 (Fed. Cir. 1984).
(Example ofliteralpatent infringement.)
32. Haworth, Inc. v. Steelcase, Inc., No. G-89-30373-CA (W.D. Michigan De-
cember 23, 1996).
(Example showing high damage award forpatent infringement.)
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