Approximately nine years ago, after taking a position as a criminal inves-
tigator with the one of the largest district attorney ofces in California,
I became involved with the special operations group that was tasked
primarily with conducting protective operations for the staff as well as
victims, witnesses, and informants. As a former SWAT operator with my
last department, it was a natural t. At around the same time, another
investigator was hired who had been a SWAT/sniper with his last depart-
ment. Surprisingly for both us, of the approximate 10 investigators in the
unit, only two others were former SWAT, one of whom was the soon to be
commander of the unit. The rest of the team, while all very experienced
law enforcement professionals, had limited specialized tactical training,
the exceptions being a former army ranger and a former state narcotics
special agent. Out of the whole team, only three of us, including myself,
had attended a basic dignitary protection course.
Fortunately, the team had a wide selection of weaponry including
fully automatic submachine guns in three different calibers, assault ries,
and shotguns with which to work. The training initially began with the
basics, motorcade operations, and the various pedestrian protective rings.
With access of a facility that allowed vehicles to be brought up on the r-
ing range, as well as a large tire house, we were able to evolve the training
to live re scenarios. The problem that quickly became apparent was that
there was not much information available on what to train for beyond the
basics. Specically, what type of attacks could be encountered by an indi-
vidual and/or protective detail?
In 2002, in an effort to train the team to respond to real world threats,
not just some hypothetical attack, I began researching targeted attacks
from around the world, beginning with January 1950. In April of 2010, I
published the rst result of this research, Targeted Violence: A Statistical and
Tactical Analysis of Assassinations, Contract Killings, and Kidnappings (CRC
Press, 2010). This was a compilation and analysis of 900 targeted attacks on
individuals, many of whom had protective teams. The attack information
was broken down to individual elements to allow for ease of understand-
ing. Since then, I have continued to monitor attacks occurring around the
world. While many attacks have fallen into the statistical normthat I
discovered during my early research, there also have been a fair amount

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