Chapter 7 Enterprise Architecture
(Weerakkody et al., 2007). Other models are more one-dimensional and therefore are
not as holistic. Enterprise architecture emphasizes preplanning and well-defined proce-
dures, which has a good basis for communicating the information systems to others in the
organization. Enterprise architecture is also oriented toward efficiency and effectiveness
in the management and implementation of information systems. In case studies of enter-
prise architecture in e-government, some of the most notable challenges were interoper-
ability concerns at different levels of government. A challenge particularly evident in the
public sector for enterprise architecture is decentralized information systems.
Interoperability in computing systems can be defined as the ability to exchange
information and mutually use this information (Guijarro, 2007). Interoperability
between information systems of different agencies is a way of providing services
to citizens and businesses in an integrated manner. Public administration has long
been concerned with avoiding vendor lock in its IT infrastructure. Standardization
has been a response in the 1980s to concerns related to interoperability. Enterprise
architecture is a way of aligning information systems to promote interoperability in
public organizations.
Interoperability has the goal of getting people and organizations to share informa-
tion through IT. Landsbergen and Wolken (2001) believed that we are in the fourth
generation of computer technology through the networking of information systems.
The third generation of computers was the personal computer, which provided
the ability of a person to collect, manipulate, and store information on his or her
desktop. Interoperability is used to take this information on a personal computer
Table 7-3
Technologies Used in Government Enterprise Architecture
Technology Description
Local area network (LAN) Computer network connecting a geographical area such as a
building or campus
Server A powerful computer that runs applications and connects computer
terminals providing service requests
Internet A collection of global communications that connects users using the
same protocols
Intranet A secure network that connects a specified subpopulation of
Internet users
Extranet A wide area network that links those outside the organization with
government inside the organization
Adapted from Ebrahim and Irani (2005) and Laudon and Laudon (2009).
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