Appendix 1

Who Calls the Shots? The Politics of Education

The arrangements for educational development have a chequered history. The responsibility of the State, particularly of the Central government, has varied considerably over time. J. P. Naik, an eminent educationist who was associated with the Department of Education in the 1960s and 1970s, observed that if the history of education in the Raj period were to be written in modern parlance Education had been in the exclusively Central List between 1833 and 1870, in the Concurrent List between 1870 and 1921, in the exclusive State List between 1921 and 1947.

In 1855, steps were taken to create Education Departments in the Provinces which strangely had no legal authority over education, while ...

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