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Public Transport Planning and Management in Developing Countries
Chapter 7
Management of Public Transport
7.1 Urban transport management
Urban areas in India suffer from inadequate road capacity leading to congestion and de-
lays both in the morning peak hour and evening peak hour. This peak period is getting
extended for more than two to three hours in the morning and another two to three hours
in the evening. This problem is much more critical in all metropolitan cities of India. The
congestion is due to demand being much higher than the capacity of the road network that
is available to cater to the demand.
Urban transport is an important infrastructure essential for urban growth and sustainabil-
ity. In India, transportation demand in urban areas continues to increase rapidly as a result
of both population growth and changes in travel patterns. Globalization has its impact on
urban growth and its planning. The competition between Bangalore, Chennai, Hyderabad,
etc. to attract capital and the software industry is well known. At a global level also, this
trend is evidenced and city governments (e.g., Sydney, Singapore, and London) have been
adapting to their new global environments. It has been assumed that to gain a comparative
advantage, it is necessary to beat competitors in the game of attracting investment from
the leading sectors of the new globalized economy. Transport with its direct and indirect
impact on environment, safety, and energy considerations, has a vital role in the globalized
city. To make a city competitive, livable, and attractive, a well functioning urban transport
system is very essential. The contribution of a well functioning urban transport system
to the City Development Index (CDI) is around 30%. An efficient urban transportation
system can increase society’s productivity and welfare by improving people’s access to jobs,
recreational activities, and educational institutes.
7.1.1 Problems of urban transport and consequences
Due to rapid urbanization, there is exponential growth of travel demand and doubling of
trip lengths but only a marginal increase in mobility levels. There is no integration of land
use planning and transport. The increased urbanization and concentration of population
in large cities is putting heavy pressure on the already over saturated urban transport
network, adversely affecting the productivity in urban areas. The mass transport systems
are inadequate and are unable to cater to the demand imposed on them. As a result, there
is a tremendous increase in the use of personalized vehicles, but the carrying capacity of
roads has not kept pace.
This is leading to congestion, continuous slowing down of average vehicular speeds, increas-
ing air and noise pollution, increasing accident rates, and excessive use of nonrenewable
energy. Mass transit requirements of the metro cities and other large cities need to be
addressed on a priority basis. With growing traffic congestion, rush hour traffic is slowing
to a crawl. This in turn leads to higher oil consumption and emissions, which are polluting
urban areas beyond acceptable limits. There is an urgent need in reducing the total number
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