We have seen that by the application of a signal of proper polarity and magnitude, a transistor switch can be driven into saturation. As a result, the voltage at the collector of the device is VCE(sat) (typically 0.1 V for Ge and 0.2 V for Si). Now, when a signal of opposite polarity is applied as input to the switch, ideally the voltage at the collector rises to VCC. Thus, we see that the change in voltage at the collector is VCCVCE(sat)VCC. This output is connected to operate some other circuits. For proper operation, it is desirable that VCC be made reasonably large. However, by increasing the value of VCC, the reverse-bias voltage on the collector base diode could become so large that an avalanche breakdown may ...

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