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Python Data Science Handbook by Jake VanderPlas

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Chapter 2. Introduction to NumPy

This chapter, along with Chapter 3, outlines techniques for effectively loading, storing, and manipulating in-memory data in Python. The topic is very broad: datasets can come from a wide range of sources and a wide range of formats, including collections of documents, collections of images, collections of sound clips, collections of numerical measurements, or nearly anything else. Despite this apparent heterogeneity, it will help us to think of all data fundamentally as arrays of numbers.

For example, images—particularly digital images—can be thought of as simply two-dimensional arrays of numbers representing pixel brightness across the area. Sound clips can be thought of as one-dimensional arrays of intensity versus time. Text can be converted in various ways into numerical representations, perhaps binary digits representing the frequency of certain words or pairs of words. No matter what the data are, the first step in making them analyzable will be to transform them into arrays of numbers. (We will discuss some specific examples of this process later in “Feature Engineering”.)

For this reason, efficient storage and manipulation of numerical arrays is absolutely fundamental to the process of doing data science. We’ll now take a look at the specialized tools that Python has for handling such numerical arrays: the NumPy package and the Pandas package (discussed in Chapter 3.)

This chapter will cover NumPy in detail. NumPy (short for Numerical ...

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