Chapter 9. Plotting and Visualization

Making informative visualizations (sometimes called plots) is one of the most important tasks in data analysis. It may be a part of the exploratory process—for example, to help identify outliers or needed data transformations, or as a way of generating ideas for models. For others, building an interactive visualization for the web may be the end goal. Python has many add-on libraries for making static or dynamic visualizations, but I’ll be mainly focused on matplotlib and libraries that build on top of it.

matplotlib is a desktop plotting package designed for creating (mostly two-dimensional) publication-quality plots. The project was started by John Hunter in 2002 to enable a MATLAB-like plotting interface in Python. The matplotlib and IPython communities have collaborated to simplify interactive plotting from the IPython shell (and now, Jupyter notebook). matplotlib supports various GUI backends on all operating systems and additionally can export visualizations to all of the common vector and raster graphics formats (PDF, SVG, JPG, PNG, BMP, GIF, etc.). With the exception of a few diagrams, nearly all of the graphics in this book were produced using matplotlib.

Over time, matplotlib has spawned a number of add-on toolkits for data visualization that use matplotlib for their underlying plotting. One of these is seaborn, which we explore later in this chapter.

The simplest way to follow the code examples in the chapter is to use interactive plotting ...

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