Conventions

The following conventions are used in this book:

[]

Items in brackets are usually optional. The exceptions are those cases where brackets are part of Python’s syntax.

*

Something followed by an asterisk can be repeated zero or more times.

a | b

Items separated by a bar are often alternatives.

Italic

Used for filenames and URLs and to highlight new terms.

Constant width

Used for code, commands, and command-line options, and to indicate the names of modules, functions, attributes, variables, and methods.

Constant width italic

Used for replaceable parameter names in command syntax.

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