Operator Overloading Methods
Classes intercept and implement built-in operations by providing specially named method functions, all of which start and end with two underscores. These names are not reserved and can be inherited from superclasses as usual. Python locates and calls at most one per operation.
Python automatically calls a class’s overloading methods when
instances appear in expressions and other contexts. For example, if a
class defines a method named
X is an instance of this class, the expression
X[i] is equivalent to the method call
Overloading method names are sometimes arbitrary: a class’s
__add__ method need not perform an
addition (or concatenation). Moreover, classes generally can mix numeric
and collection methods and mutable and immutable operations. Most
operator overloading names have no defaults, and the corresponding
operation raises an exception if its method is not defined.
For All Types
__new__(cls [, args...])
Called to create and return a new instance of class
cls. Receives constructor arguments passed to the class. If this returns an instance of the class, the instance’s
__init__method is invoked with the same constructor arguments. Not used in normal classes; intended to allow subclasses of immutable types to customize instance creation, and to allow custom metaclasses to customize class creation.
__init__(self [, arg]*)
class(args...). This is the constructor that initializes the new instance,
self. When run ...