Culture and Race

The need to acknowledge culture has been expressed by numerous scholars and social change advocates (such as Hilliard, 1991; Hopson & Kirkhart, 2011; Ladson-Billings, 1994) who recognize the wealth of information that is gained when data are analyzed and interpreted within a cultural context. However, culture is generally a difficult construct (a speculative framework for a concept or idea) to operationalize. Steven J. Heine (2008), a cultural psychologist, offered that the construct of culture is interpreted in light of one's profession and field of study. He proposes two definitions for this construct. In one definition culture is identified as “any idea, belief, technology, habit, or practice that is acquired from others” ...

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