When it comes to the measurement of physical observables, quantum mechanics can tell us what measurement results are possible and what the probability is of obtaining each measurement result. It is also important to focus on what the state of the system is after a measurement is made. While measurement generally has no effect on a system in classical mechanics (i.e., macroscopic systems in general), measurement has a profound impact on a quantum mechanical system—altering its state in an irreversible way. Much of the material in this chapter is a review of concepts already introduced. Nevertheless, if this is your first exposure to quantum theory, it is important that you master these topics. Measurement plays a fundamental role in quantum computation because, at some point, we have to be able to get information out of the computational system. In this chapter we will learn the basics about different measurement models used in quantum theory.


Measurement plays a central role in quantum mechanics. An act of measurement disturbs a quantum system in a fundamental way. Consider once again a general qubit


When a measurement is made, the qubit will be forced into the state image |0〉 or 〉 |1〉. After measurement the ...

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