Clutter primarily comprises unwanted stationary ground reflections with limited relative motion with respect to the radar. Therefore, its power spectrum density will be concentrated around f = 0. However, because the overall clutter spreading σf (derived in Chapter 9 and repeated here as Eq. (10.1) for convenience) is not always zero, clutter actually exhibits some Doppler frequency spread. The overall clutter spreading is denoted by σf, and is given by
σv accounts for clutter spread due to platform motion, σs accounts for the antenna scan rate, and σw accounts for the clutter spread due to wind.
The clutter ...