Tropospheric effects involve interactions between radio waves and the lower layer of the Earth's atmosphere, embracing altitudes from the ground surface up to several tens of kilometers above the Earth, including effects of the gases composing the air and hydrometeors such as rain, clouds, fog, pollutions, as well as various turbulent structures created by turbulent wind streams, both in vertical and horizontal directions, gradient of temperature, moisture, and pressure in layered atmosphere at the near-the-earth altitudes.
12.1. Main Propagation Effects of the Troposphere as a Spherical Layered Gaseous Continuum
12.1.1. Model of the Troposphere and Main Tropospheric Processes
Troposhere is a region of the Earth's lower atmosphere that surrounds the Earth from the ground surface up to 10–20 km above the terrain, where it continuously spreads to the stratosphere (20–50 km), and then to the thermosphere, usually called ionosphere (50–400 km). The effects of the latter on radio propagation will be presented in the next chapter. Here, we will focus on the effects of the troposphere on radiowave propagation, starting with a definition of the troposphere as a natural layered air medium consisting of different gaseous, liquid, and crystal structures.
The physical properties of the troposphere is characterized by the following main parameters such as temperature, T (in Kelvin), pressure, p (in millibars or in millimeters of ...